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Tour Oxygène Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar! Marseille second-largest city France after Paris centre of third-largest metropolitan area France after Paris Lyon east starting small fishing village of Callelongue outskirts of Marseille stretching far Cassis Calanques rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets Farther east still Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from forest of deciduous trees) city of Toulon French Riviera north of Marseille beyond low Garlaban Etoile mountain ranges 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire west of Marseille former artists' colony of l'Estaque farther west Côte Bleue Gulf of Lion Camargue region Rhône delta airport lies north west of city Marignane Étang de BerreMarseille Calanques National Park from ISS February 2017, The Paris Catacombs hold remains of approximately 6 million peopleIn Paris's Roman era its main cemetery was located outskirts of Left Bank settlement but this changed with rise of Catholicism where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds use their parishes With Paris's growth many of these particularly city's largest cemetery les Innocents were filled overflowing creating quite unsanitary conditions capital When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786 contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside Porte d'Enfer city gate today place Denfert-Rochereau 14th arrondissementprocess of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents catacombs took place between 1786 1814 part of network of tunnels remains can be visited today official tour of catacombsAfter tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided more definitive solution creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside city limits Open from 1804 these were cemeteries of Père Lachaise Montmartre Montparnasse later Passy these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications 1860 New suburban cemeteries were created early 20th century largest of these Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) Cimetière parisien d'Ivry Cimetière parisien de Bagneux Some of most famous people world buried Parisian cemeteriesHealthcare, The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government; On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914), Administration Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules, The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums.
Vieux Lyon (English Old Lyon) area Mediaeval Renaissance quarter of town with shops dining cobbled streets, see description Main article Administration of Paris With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century). Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present, Ambox current red.svg Swordfish olive oil with ratatouille saffron rice. Republican marches were organised across France after January 2015 Île-de-France attacks perpetrated Islamic terrorists they largest public rallies French historySince 19th century France has received many immigrants These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed During 1970s France faced economic crisis allowed new immigrants (mostly from Maghreb) permanently settle France with their families acquire French citizenship resulted hundreds of thousands of Muslims (especially larger cities) living subsidised public housing suffering from very high unemployment rates Simultaneously France renounced assimilation of immigrants where they were expected adhere French traditional values cultural norms They were encouraged retain their distinctive cultures traditions required merely integrateSince 1995 Paris Métro RER bombings France has been sporadically targeted Islamist organisations notably Charlie Hebdo attack January 2015 which provoked largest public rallies French history gathering 4.4 million people, November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted 130 deaths deadliest attack French soil since World War II, deadliest European Union since Madrid train bombings 2004 2016 Nice attack which caused 87 deaths during Bastille Day celebrationsGeography. Drawing of Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 smoke of gunfire enveloping stone castle, Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography. Hauts-de- Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes A number of faculties of three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University located Marseille.