Marseille Provence Airport fifth busiest FranceThe city served international airport Marseille Provence Airport located Marignane airport fifth busiest French airport known 4th most important European traffic growth 2012extensive network of motorways connects Marseille north west (A7) Aix-en-Provence north (A51) Toulon (A50) French Riviera (A8) eastGare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille's main railway station operates direct regional services Aix-en-Provence Briançon Toulon Avignon Nice Montpellier Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes etc Gare Saint-Charles also one of main terminal stations TGV south of France making Marseille reachable three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) just over one half hours from Lyon There also direct TGV lines Lille Brussels Nantes Geneva Strasbourg Frankfurt well Eurostar services London addition night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg Strasbourg stops here its way Nice whereas night train from Paris Nice serves Gare de Marseille-Blancarde (fr)There new long distance bus station adjacent new modern extension Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly other Bouches-du-Rhône towns including buses Aix-en-Provence Cassis La Ciotat Aubagne city also served with 11 other regional trains stations east north of cityMarseille has large ferry terminal Gare Maritime with services Corsica Sardinia Algeria TunisiaPublic transport, There several popular festivals different neighborhoods with concerts animations outdoor bars like Fête du Panier June 21 June there dozens of free concerts city part of France's Fête de la Musique featuring music from all over world Being free events many Marseille residents attendMarseille hosts Gay Pride event early July 2013 Marseille hosted Europride international LGBT event 10 July–20 beginning of July there International Documentary Festival end of September electronic music festival Marsatac takes place October Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world musicHip hop music. The population of city of Lyon proper was 491,268 January 2011 census, 14% of whom were born outside Metropolitan FranceMain sights.
In late 12th century school of polyphony was established Notre-Dame Among Trouvères of northern France group of Parisian aristocrats became known their poetry songs Troubadours from south of France were also popular During reign of François I Renaissance era lute became popular French court French royal family courtiers disported themselves masques ballets allegorical dances recitals opera comedy national musical printing house was established Baroque-era noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully Jean-Philippe Rameau François CouperinConservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded 17951870 Paris had become important centre symphony ballet operatic musicRomantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique) Charles Gounod (Faust) Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah) Léo Delibes (Lakmé) Jules Massenet (Thaïs) among others Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875 Carmen has since become one of most popular frequently-performed operas classical canon Among Impressionist composers who created new works piano orchestra opera chamber music other musical forms stand particular Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque its well-known third movement Clair de lune La Mer Pelléas et Mélisande) Erik Satie (Gymnopédies Je te veux Gnossiennes Parade) Maurice Ravel (Miroirs Boléro La valse L'heure espagnole) Several foreign-born composers such Frédéric Chopin (Poland) Franz Liszt (Hungary) Jacques Offenbach (Germany) Niccolò Paganini (Italy) Igor Stravinsky (Russia) established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works their influence ParisCharles Aznavour; René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic, The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera. A map of arrondissements of Paris, Main article Geography of France Map of Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon red). One of Lascaux paintings horse – approximately 18,000 BC Marseille television Palais du Pharo 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north). The Rhône Saône converge south of historic city centre forming peninsula – Presqu'île – bounded two large hills west north large plain eastward Place Bellecour located Presqu'île between two rivers third-largest public square France broad pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place BellecourThe northern hill La Croix-Rousse known the hill that works because traditionally home many small silk workshops industry which city has long been renownedThe western hill Fourvière known the hill that prays because location basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière several convents residence of Archbishop district Vieux Lyon also hosts Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower replicating last stage of Eiffel Tower) one of city's funicular railways Fourvière along with portions of Presqu'île much of La Croix-Rousse designated UNESCO World Heritage siteEast of Rhône from Presqu'île large flat area upon which sits much of modern Lyon contains most of city's population Situated this area urban centre of La Part-Dieu which clusters landmark structures Tour Part-Dieu Tour Oxygène Tour Swiss Life well city's primary railway station Gare de Lyon-Part-DieuNorth of this district sixth arrondissement which home one of Europe's largest urban parks Parc de la Tête d'or well Lycée du Parc Interpol's world headquartersPanorama of city of Lyon, By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944), Tourists from around world make Louvre most-visited art museum worldGreater Paris comprising Paris its three surrounding departments received 23.6 million visitors 2017 measured hotel arrivals These included 12 million foreign visitors 11.5 million French visitors Of foreign visitors greatest number came from United States (2 million) Great Britain (1.1 million) Germany (802.6 thousand) China (774.4 thousand)In 2016 measured MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index Paris was third-busiest airline destination world with 18.03 million visitors behind Bangkok (21.47 million) London (19.88 million) According Paris Convention Visitors Bureau 393,008 workers Greater Paris or 12.4% of total workforce engaged tourism-related sectors such hotels catering transport leisureMonuments attractions. Ambox current red.svg With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas. 1st arrondissement Slopes of La Croix-Rousse Terreaux Martinière/St-Vincent Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897 Hermitage Museum, Main article Cinema of France 5th arrondissement Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul Saint-Jean Saint-Georges) Saint-Just Saint-Irénée, Fourvière Point du Jour Ménival Battières Champvert (south). Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC Greek colony of Massalia populated settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça Turkey) became preeminent Greek polis Hellenized region of southern Gaul city-state sided with Roman Republic against Carthage during Second Punic War (218-201 BC) retaining its independence commercial empire throughout western Mediterranean even Rome expanded into Western Europe North Africa However city lost its independence following Roman Siege of Massilia 49 BC during Caesar's Civil War which Massalia sided with exiled faction war with Julius CaesarMarseille continued prosper Roman city becoming early center of Christianity during Western Roman Empire city maintained its position premier maritime trading hub even after its capture Visigoths 5th century AD although city went into decline following sack of 739 AD forces of Charles Martel became part of County of Provence during 10th century although its renewed prosperity was curtailed Black Death of 14th century sack of city Crown of Aragon 1423 city's fortunes rebounded with ambitious building projects of René of Anjou Count of Provence who strengthened city's fortifications during mid-15th century During 16th century city hosted naval fleet with combined forces of Franco-Ottoman alliance which threatened ports navies of Genoa Holy Roman EmpireMarseille lost significant portion of its population during Great Plague of Marseille 1720 but population had recovered mid century 1792 city became focal point of French Revolution was birthplace of France's national anthem La Marseillaise Industrial Revolution establishment of French Empire during 19th century allowed further expansion of city although was occupied German Wehrmacht November 1942 subsequently heavily damaged during World War II city has since become major center immigrant communities from former French colonies such French AlgeriaEconomy, Outside central Marseille Prehistory (before 6th century BC) 1st arrondissement Slopes of La Croix-Rousse Terreaux Martinière/St-Vincent!