The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics, Rue de Rivoli The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city! Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity. Protestant (20,000) During Restoration bridges squares of Paris were returned their pre-Revolution names but July Revolution of 1830 Paris (commemorated July Column Place de la Bastille) brought constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I power first railway line Paris opened 1837 beginning new period of massive migration from provinces city Louis-Philippe was overthrown popular uprising streets of Paris 1848 His successor Napoleon III newly appointed prefect of Seine Georges-Eugène Haussmann launched gigantic public works project build wide new boulevards new opera house central market new aqueducts sewers parks including Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes1860 Napoleon III also annexed surrounding towns created eight new arrondissements expanding Paris its current limitsIn 1860s Paris streets monuments were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps giving name The City of LightDuring Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Paris was besieged Prussian army After months of blockade hunger then bombardment Prussians city was forced surrender 28 January 1871 28 March revolutionary government called Paris Commune seized power Paris Commune held power two months until was harshly suppressed French army during Bloody Week end of May 1871The Eiffel Tower under construction November 1888 startled Parisians – world – with its modernityLate 19th century Paris hosted two major international expositions 1889 Universal Exposition was held mark centennial of French Revolution featured new Eiffel Tower 1900 Universal Exposition which gave Paris Pont Alexandre III Grand Palais Petit Palais first Paris Métro line Paris became laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine) of Impressionism art (Courbet Manet Monet Renoir)20th 21st centuries! French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789), The lion symbol of city display Maison des Avocats. In addition 18 regions 101 departments French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre Miquelon Wallis Futuna) one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) one overseas territory (French Southern Antarctic Lands) one island possession Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island)Overseas collectivities territories form part of French Republic but do not form part of European Union or its fiscal area (with exception of St Bartelemy which seceded from Guadeloupe 2007) Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia Wallis Futuna New Caledonia continue use CFP franc whose value strictly linked that of euro contrast five overseas regions used French franc now use eurodiagram of overseas territories of France showing map shapes. Main article Tourism France In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles. The 19th-century Basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built architect Espérandieu hills south of Old Port terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille its surroundingsThe Stade Vélodrome home stadium of city's main football team Olympique de MarseilleThe Unité d'Habitation influential iconic modernist building designed Swiss architect Le Corbusier 1952 third floor gastronomic restaurant Le Ventre de l'Architecte roof contemporary gallery MaMo opened 2013The Docks de Marseille 19th-century warehouse transformed into officesThe Pharo Gardens park with views of Mediterranean Old PortThe Corniche picturesque waterfront road between Old Port Bay of MarseilleThe beaches Prado Pointe Rouge Les Goudes Callelongue Le ProphèteThe Calanques wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue Sormiou Morgiou Luminy Cassis Calanques National Park became France's tenth national park 2012The islands of Frioul archipelago Bay of Marseille accessible ferry from Old Port prison of Château d'If was one of settings Count of Monte Cristo novel Alexandre Dumasneighbouring islands of Ratonneau Pomègues joined man-made breakwater site of former garrison quarantine hospital these islands also of interest their marine wildlifeEducation research, Overview Lyon during Fête des Lumières, On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography! Bouillabaisse most famous seafood dish of Marseille fish stew containing least three varieties of very fresh local fish typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa) sea robin (fr grondin) European conger (fr congre)can include gilt-head bream (fr dorade) turbot monkfish (fr lotte or baudroie) mullet or silver hake (fr merlan) usually includes shellfish other seafood such sea urchins (fr oursins) mussels (fr moules) velvet crabs (fr étrilles) spider crab (fr araignées de mer) plus potatoes vegetables traditional version fish served platter separate from brothbroth served with rouille mayonnaise made with egg yolk olive oil red bell pepper saffron garlic spread pieces of toasted bread or croûtesMarseille bouillabaisse rarely made fewer than ten people more people who share meal more different fish that included better bouillabaisseAïoli sauce made from raw garlic lemon juice eggs olive oil served with boiled fish hard boiled eggs cooked vegetablesAnchoïade (fr) paste made from anchovies garlic olive oil spread bread or served with raw vegetablesBourride (fr) soup made with white fish (monkfish European sea bass whiting etc.) aïoliFougasse flat Provençal bread similar Italian focaccia traditionally baked wood oven sometimes filled with olives cheese or anchovies., Main article France twentieth century, Rhône-AlpesOccitanie Institut supérieur européen de gestion group.
Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms. The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010, Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules, Lyon third-largest city second-largest urban area of France located country's east-central part confluence of rivers Rhône Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne Inhabitants of city called LyonnaisLyon had population of 513,275 2015capital of Metropolis of Lyon region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Lyon metropolitan area had population of 2,265,375 2014 second-largest urban area Francecity known its cuisine gastronomy historical architectural landmarks part of registered UNESCO World Heritage site Lyon was historically important area production weaving of silk Lyon played significant role history of cinema where Auguste Louis Lumière invented cinematograph also known its light festival Fête des Lumières which begins every 8 December lasts four days earning Lyon title of Capital of LightsEconomically Lyon major centre banking well chemical pharmaceutical biotech industries city contains significant software industry with particular focus video games recent years has fostered growing local start-up sector Lyon hosts international headquarters of Interpol International Agency Research Cancer Euronews was ranked 19th globally second France innovation 2014ranked second France 39th globally Mercer's 2015 liveability rankingsHistory.