Rue de Rivoli, Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Strasbourg stone building with portico park, Main articles Music Paris History of music Paris. BiscayLigurian Le Grand Rex tower As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État. Animated gif showing expansion of Franks across Europe, Jean-Paul Sartre Main articles French Renaissance (c 1400–c 1650) Early modern France (1500–1789) French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) Ancien Régime (c 1400–1792), SeaMediterranean Main article List of films set Marseille. Map of 25 largest urban units population Climate data Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) 43°26'18.4N 5°12'51.9E (1981–2010 averages record highs lows 1921–present). The population of Paris today lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million 1921 principal reasons were significant decline household size dramatic migration of residents suburbs between 1962 1975 Factors migration included de-industrialisation high rent gentrification of many inner quarters transformation of living space into offices greater affluence among working families city's population loss came end 21st century population estimate of July 2004 showed population increase first time since 1954 population reached 2,234,000 2009According Eurostat EU statistical agency 2012 Commune of Paris was most densely populated city European Union with 21,616 people per square kilometre within city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area) ahead of Inner London West which had 10,374 people per square kilometre According same census three departments bordering Paris Hauts-de-Seine Seine-Saint-Denis Val-de-Marne had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre ranking among 10 most densely populated areas of EUMigration, The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics.
Institution des Chartreux See also List of railway stations Paris, Paris grew population from about 400,000 1640 650,000 1780new boulevard Champs-Élysées extended city west Étoile, while working-class neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Antoine eastern site of city grew more more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of FranceParis was centre of explosion of philosophic scientific activity known Age of Enlightenment Diderot d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie 1751 Montgolfier Brothers launched first manned flight hot-air balloon 21 November 1783 from gardens of Château de la Muette Paris was financial capital of continental Europe primary European centre of book publishing fashion manufacture of fine furniture luxury goodsThe storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 Jean-Baptiste Lallemand (Musée de la Révolution française). The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton. Hector Berlioz 1863 Universities tertiary education, Main articles Arrondissements of Marseille Cantons of Marseille. Parc de Parilly (178 hectares)Education Stade de France, The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation. To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors; Republican Guards parading Bastille Day, Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics, During Restoration bridges squares of Paris were returned their pre-Revolution names but July Revolution of 1830 Paris (commemorated July Column Place de la Bastille) brought constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I power first railway line Paris opened 1837 beginning new period of massive migration from provinces city Louis-Philippe was overthrown popular uprising streets of Paris 1848 His successor Napoleon III newly appointed prefect of Seine Georges-Eugène Haussmann launched gigantic public works project build wide new boulevards new opera house central market new aqueducts sewers parks including Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes1860 Napoleon III also annexed surrounding towns created eight new arrondissements expanding Paris its current limitsIn 1860s Paris streets monuments were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps giving name The City of LightDuring Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Paris was besieged Prussian army After months of blockade hunger then bombardment Prussians city was forced surrender 28 January 1871 28 March revolutionary government called Paris Commune seized power Paris Commune held power two months until was harshly suppressed French army during Bloody Week end of May 1871The Eiffel Tower under construction November 1888 startled Parisians – world – with its modernityLate 19th century Paris hosted two major international expositions 1889 Universal Exposition was held mark centennial of French Revolution featured new Eiffel Tower 1900 Universal Exposition which gave Paris Pont Alexandre III Grand Palais Petit Palais first Paris Métro line Paris became laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine) of Impressionism art (Courbet Manet Monet Renoir)20th 21st centuries. OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport. Political majority each sector since 2014 The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated 2013 MuCEM devoted history culture of European Mediterranean civilisations adjacent Villa Méditerranée international centre cultural artistic interchange partially constructed underwater site linked footbridges Fort Saint-Jean PanierThe Musée Regards de Provence opened 2013 located between Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur Fort Saint-Jean occupies converted port building constructed 1945 monitor control potential sea-borne health hazards particular epidemics now houses permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence well temporary exhibitionsThe Musée du Vieux Marseille housed 16th-century Maison Diamantée describing everyday life Marseille from 18th century onwardsThe Musée des Docks Romains preserves situ remains of Roman commercial warehouses has small collection of objects dating from Greek period Middle Ages that were uncovered site or retrieved from shipwrecksThe Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille) devoted history of town located Centre Bourse contains remains of Greek Roman history of Marseille well best preserved hull of 6th-century boat world Ancient remains from Hellenic port displayed adjacent archeological gardens Jardin des VestigesThe Musée Cantini museum of modern art near Palais de Justice houses artworks associated with Marseille well several works PicassoThe Musée Grobet-Labadié opposite Palais Longchamp houses exceptional collection of European objets d'art old musical instrumentsThe 19th-century Palais Longchamp designed Esperandieu located Parc Longchamp Built grand scale this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls jeux d'eau marks masks entry point of Canal de Provence into Marseille Its two wings house Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum) Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille)The Château Borély located Parc Borély park off Bay of Marseille with Jardin botanique E.M Heckel botanical garden Museum of Decorative Arts Fashion Ceramics (fr) opened renovated château June 2013The Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille (fr) (MAC) museum of contemporary art opened 1994 devoted American European art from 1960s present dayThe Musée du Terroir Marseillais (fr) Château-Gombert devoted Provençal crafts traditionsThe MuCEM Musée Regards de Provence Villa Mediterannée with Notre Dame de la Majeur right.