Marseille has been setting many films mostly produced France or Hollywood Taxi 4 was filmed Marseille (2007). See also List of films set Paris. Main article Tourism France, Unemployment economy fell from 20% 1995 14% 2004 However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than national average some parts of Marseille youth unemployment reported be high 40%Administration, The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries! The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism, Val de LoirePays de la Loire, ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes); Palme d'Or award presentation case, Religion France (2016) France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport, Amphitheatre of Three Gauls Roman ruins of amphitheatreMiddle Ages Renaissance.
International regional transport EPITA Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map. Roman Catholic (400,000) For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay, Vélib' Place de la Bastille. Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté, BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine Main article Culture of France, Jewish (52,000) 2nd arrondissement Cordeliers Bellecour Ainay Perrache Confluence Sainte-Blandine See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region. Pierre Mignard Self-portrait between 1670 1690 oil canvas 235 cm × 188 cm (93 × 74 in) Louvre. On 8 May 1945 while Liberation was celebrated France peaceful demonstrations Sétif eastern Algeria were violently repressed More than 40,000 Algerian fell victim shooting strafing from planes armed cars end of same month French bombarded Damascus killing hundredsbombardment of Haiphong 23 November 1946 killed about 6,000 Between March 1947 September 1948 electoral victory of proponents of independence Madagascar was followed savage repression French army (18,000 mostly Senegalese troops) resulting some 90,000 deaths Some 200 peaceful civilians demonstrating independence were killed (mostly Senegalese) French troops Casablanca Morocco April 7–8 1947Cameroon radical nationalist movement independence Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) was forced underground engaged guerrilla warfare against French administration ensuing repression of French army paramilitary forces (gendarmerie) took form during 1958–1960 of scorched-earth policy whereby entire villages of south-central western Cameroon Bassa Bamiléké areas were burned ground resulting between 60,000 100,000 deaths France attempted regain control of French Indochina but was defeated Viet Minh 1954 climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu Estimates of number of Vietnamese military civilian casualties during war of independence from France range from 300,000 dead 300,000 wounded half million dead 1 million woundedOnly months later France faced another anti-colonialist conflict Algeria Torture illegal executions were perpetrated both sides debate over whether or not keep control of Algeria then home over one million European settlers, wracked country nearly led coup civil war1958 weak unstable Fourth Republic gave way Fifth Republic which included strengthened Presidency latter role Charles de Gaulle managed keep country together while taking steps end Algerian war Despite its military victory France granted independence Algerians war exacted heavy human toll among Algerian population resulted some 500,000 deaths 2,137,000 internally displaced Algeriansvestige of colonial empire French overseas departments territoriesIn context of Cold War de Gaulle pursued policy of national independence towards Western Eastern blocs this end he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command he launched nuclear development programme made France fourth nuclear power He restored cordial Franco-German relations order create European counterweight between American Soviet spheres of influence However he opposed any development of supranational Europe favouring Europe of sovereign nations wake of series of worldwide protests of 1968 revolt of May 1968 had enormous social impact France considered be watershed moment when conservative moral ideal (religion patriotism respect authority) shifted towards more liberal moral ideal (secularism individualism sexual revolution) Although revolt was political failure (as Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) announced split between French people de Gaulle who resigned shortly afterIn post-Gaullist era France remained one of most developed economies world but faced several economic crises that resulted high unemployment rates increasing public debt late 20th early 21st centuries France has been forefront of development of supranational European Union notably signing Maastricht Treaty (which created European Union) 1992 establishing Eurozone 1999 signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO has since participated most NATO sponsored warsPlace de la République statue column with large French flag. CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie) Stade de France Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different. The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation.