By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944). École Centrale de Lyon, Musée des Automates museum of automated puppets Vieux Lyon open since 1991Parks gardens, Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I Nuclear power plant Cattenom France four large cooling towers expelling white water vapor against blue sky. Main articles History of Lyon Timeline of Lyon, See also List of railway stations Paris; BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland Marseille Provence Airport fifth busiest FranceThe city served international airport Marseille Provence Airport located Marignane airport fifth busiest French airport known 4th most important European traffic growth 2012extensive network of motorways connects Marseille north west (A7) Aix-en-Provence north (A51) Toulon (A50) French Riviera (A8) eastGare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille's main railway station operates direct regional services Aix-en-Provence Briançon Toulon Avignon Nice Montpellier Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes etc Gare Saint-Charles also one of main terminal stations TGV south of France making Marseille reachable three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) just over one half hours from Lyon There also direct TGV lines Lille Brussels Nantes Geneva Strasbourg Frankfurt well Eurostar services London addition night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg Strasbourg stops here its way Nice whereas night train from Paris Nice serves Gare de Marseille-Blancarde (fr)There new long distance bus station adjacent new modern extension Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly other Bouches-du-Rhône towns including buses Aix-en-Provence Cassis La Ciotat Aubagne city also served with 11 other regional trains stations east north of cityMarseille has large ferry terminal Gare Maritime with services Corsica Sardinia Algeria TunisiaPublic transport. National Gendarmerie Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology, The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses Musée du Vieux Marseille, The oldest traces of human life what now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago Humans were then confronted harsh variable climate marked several glacial erasEarly hominids led nomadic hunter-gatherer life France has large number of decorated caves from upper Palaeolithic era including one of most famous best preserved Lascaux (approximately 18,000 BC)At end of last glacial period (10,000 BC) climate became milder from approximately 7,000 BC this part of Western Europe entered Neolithic era its inhabitants became sedentaryAfter strong demographic agricultural development between 4th 3rd millennia metallurgy appeared end of 3rd millennium initially working gold copper bronze later iron France has numerous megalithic sites from Neolithic period including exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC)Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD). Main article French literature, Motorways around Marseille History, See Wiktionary name of Paris various languages other than English FrenchThe name Paris derived from its early inhabitants Celtic Parisii tribecity's name not related Paris of Greek mythologyParis often referred City of Light (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during Age of Enlightenment more literally because Paris was one of first European cities adopt gas street lighting. 1860s boulevards streets of Paris were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps Since late 19th century Paris has also been known Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) French slangInhabitants known English Parisians French Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] (About this sound listen)) They also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] (About this sound listen)).[note 1]; Palais du Pharo, The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain, FranceGrand Est Jean-Paul Sartre map of population France.
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