Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed Le Corbusier, On 8 May 1945 while Liberation was celebrated France peaceful demonstrations Sétif eastern Algeria were violently repressed More than 40,000 Algerian fell victim shooting strafing from planes armed cars end of same month French bombarded Damascus killing hundredsbombardment of Haiphong 23 November 1946 killed about 6,000 Between March 1947 September 1948 electoral victory of proponents of independence Madagascar was followed savage repression French army (18,000 mostly Senegalese troops) resulting some 90,000 deaths Some 200 peaceful civilians demonstrating independence were killed (mostly Senegalese) French troops Casablanca Morocco April 7–8 1947Cameroon radical nationalist movement independence Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) was forced underground engaged guerrilla warfare against French administration ensuing repression of French army paramilitary forces (gendarmerie) took form during 1958–1960 of scorched-earth policy whereby entire villages of south-central western Cameroon Bassa Bamiléké areas were burned ground resulting between 60,000 100,000 deaths France attempted regain control of French Indochina but was defeated Viet Minh 1954 climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu Estimates of number of Vietnamese military civilian casualties during war of independence from France range from 300,000 dead 300,000 wounded half million dead 1 million woundedOnly months later France faced another anti-colonialist conflict Algeria Torture illegal executions were perpetrated both sides debate over whether or not keep control of Algeria then home over one million European settlers, wracked country nearly led coup civil war1958 weak unstable Fourth Republic gave way Fifth Republic which included strengthened Presidency latter role Charles de Gaulle managed keep country together while taking steps end Algerian war Despite its military victory France granted independence Algerians war exacted heavy human toll among Algerian population resulted some 500,000 deaths 2,137,000 internally displaced Algeriansvestige of colonial empire French overseas departments territoriesIn context of Cold War de Gaulle pursued policy of national independence towards Western Eastern blocs this end he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command he launched nuclear development programme made France fourth nuclear power He restored cordial Franco-German relations order create European counterweight between American Soviet spheres of influence However he opposed any development of supranational Europe favouring Europe of sovereign nations wake of series of worldwide protests of 1968 revolt of May 1968 had enormous social impact France considered be watershed moment when conservative moral ideal (religion patriotism respect authority) shifted towards more liberal moral ideal (secularism individualism sexual revolution) Although revolt was political failure (as Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) announced split between French people de Gaulle who resigned shortly afterIn post-Gaullist era France remained one of most developed economies world but faced several economic crises that resulted high unemployment rates increasing public debt late 20th early 21st centuries France has been forefront of development of supranational European Union notably signing Maastricht Treaty (which created European Union) 1992 establishing Eurozone 1999 signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO has since participated most NATO sponsored warsPlace de la République statue column with large French flag. Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries, See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000), French cuisine renowned being one of finest world According regions traditional recipes different North of country prefers use butter preferred fat cooking whereas olive oil more commonly used South Moreover each region of France has iconic traditional specialities Cassoulet Southwest Choucroute Alsace Quiche Lorraine region Beef bourguignon Bourgogne provençal Tapenade etc France's most renowned products wines, including Champagne Bordeaux Bourgogne Beaujolais well large variety of different cheeses such Camembert Roquefort Brie There more than 400 different varietiesA meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert Hors d'œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic lobster bisque foie gras French onion soup or croque monsieur plat principal could include pot au feu or steak frites dessert could be mille-feuille pastry macaron éclair crème brûlée mousse au chocolat crêpes or Café liégeoisSome French cheeses with fruits. École Centrale de Lyon, Since 2016 France mainly divided into 18 administrative regions 13 regions metropolitan France (including territorial collectivity of Corsica), five located overseasregions further subdivided into 101 departments, which numbered mainly alphabetically This number used postal codes was formerly used vehicle number plates Among 101 departments of France five (French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion) overseas regions (ROMs) that also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) enjoy exactly same status metropolitan departments integral part of European UnionThe 101 departments subdivided into 335 arrondissements which are turn subdivided into 2,054 cantons These cantons then divided into 36,658 communes which municipalities with elected municipal council Three communes—Paris Lyon Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissementsThe regions departments communes all known territorial collectivities meaning they possess local assemblies well executive Arrondissements cantons merely administrative divisions However this was not always case Until 1940 arrondissements were territorial collectivities with elected assembly but these were suspended Vichy regime definitely abolished Fourth Republic 1946Overseas territories collectivities; Since 2016 France mainly divided into 18 administrative regions 13 regions metropolitan France (including territorial collectivity of Corsica), five located overseasregions further subdivided into 101 departments, which numbered mainly alphabetically This number used postal codes was formerly used vehicle number plates Among 101 departments of France five (French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion) overseas regions (ROMs) that also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) enjoy exactly same status metropolitan departments integral part of European UnionThe 101 departments subdivided into 335 arrondissements which are turn subdivided into 2,054 cantons These cantons then divided into 36,658 communes which municipalities with elected municipal council Three communes—Paris Lyon Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissementsThe regions departments communes all known territorial collectivities meaning they possess local assemblies well executive Arrondissements cantons merely administrative divisions However this was not always case Until 1940 arrondissements were territorial collectivities with elected assembly but these were suspended Vichy regime definitely abolished Fourth Republic 1946Overseas territories collectivities, See also Taxation France See also Religious buildings Paris, In recent years city has also experienced large growth service sector employment switch from light manufacturing cultural high-tech economy. Marseille region home thousands of companies 90% of which small medium enterprises with less than 500 employees.[full citation needed] Among most famous ones CMA CGM container-shipping giant Compagnie maritime d'expertises (Comex) world leader sub-sea engineering hydraulic systems Airbus Helicopters Airbus division Azur Promotel active real estate development company La Provence local daily newspaper RTM Marseille's public transport company Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM) major operator passenger vehicle freight transportation Western Mediterranean urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed large offer of offices thus Marseille hosts one of main business district FranceMarseille home of three main technopoles Château-Gombert (technological innovations) Luminy (biotechnology) La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m of offices dedicated multimedia activities)Tourism attractions! A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway. 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north), EPITA The largest opera houses of Paris 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) modern Opéra Bastille former tends toward more classic ballets operas latter provides mixed repertoire of classic modernmiddle of 19th century there were three other active competing opera houses Opéra-Comique (which still exists) Théâtre-Italien Théâtre Lyrique (which modern times changed its profile name Théâtre de la Ville) Philharmonie de Paris modern symphonic concert hall of Paris opened January 2015 Another musical landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées where first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place 1913The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu), This section may be need of reorganization comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines Please help editing article make improvements overall structure (June 2017) (Learn how when remove this template message).
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