5th arrondissement Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul Saint-Jean Saint-Georges) Saint-Just Saint-Irénée, Fourvière Point du Jour Ménival Battières Champvert (south), Église Saint-Bonaventure 14th- 15th-century Gothic church, See also List of twin towns sister cities of Paris. La Mouche Cattle Market Abbatoir (1914 1928) designed Tony Garnier See Wiktionary name of Paris various languages other than English FrenchThe name Paris derived from its early inhabitants Celtic Parisii tribecity's name not related Paris of Greek mythologyParis often referred City of Light (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during Age of Enlightenment more literally because Paris was one of first European cities adopt gas street lighting. 1860s boulevards streets of Paris were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps Since late 19th century Paris has also been known Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) French slangInhabitants known English Parisians French Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] (About this sound listen)) They also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] (About this sound listen)).[note 1], France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup. Stade de France Cathedral of St John medieval church with architectural elements of 13th 14th 15th centuries also principal religious structure city seat of Archbishop of Lyon; The main attractions outside city centre include After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature. Hollywood-style Marseille sign France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789, Main article Arrondissements of Lyon, francophone minorities Provence- Since 2000 Birdy Kids group of graffiti artists from city has decorated several random buildings walls along Lyon ring road 2012 artist collective has been chosen represent city its cultural ambassadorsEconomy. French literary figures Clockwise from top left Molière most played author Comédie-Française Victor Hugo one of most important French novelists poets 19th-century poet writer translator Charles Baudelaire 20th-century philosopher novelist Jean-Paul SartreJean Racine whose incredible mastery of alexandrine of French language has been praised centuries created plays such Phèdre or Britannicus He is along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) Molière considered one of three great dramatists of France's golden age Molière who deemed be one of greatest masters of comedy of Western literature, wrote dozens of plays including Le Misanthrope L'Avare Le Malade imaginaire Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme His plays have been so popular around world that French language sometimes dubbed the language of Molière (la langue de Molière), just like English considered the language of ShakespeareFrench literature poetry flourished even more 18th 19th centuries Denis Diderot's best-known works Jacques Fatalist Rameau's Nephew He however best known being main redactor of Encyclopédie whose aim was sum up all knowledge of his century (in fields such arts sciences languages philosophy) present them people order fight ignorance obscurantism During that same century Charles Perrault was prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss Boots Cinderella Sleeping Beauty Bluebeard start of 19th century symbolist poetry was important movement French literature with poets such Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéphane MallarméThe 19th century saw writings of many renowned French authors Victor Hugo sometimes seen the greatest French writer of all times excelling all literary genres preface of his play Cromwell considered be manifesto of Romantic movement Les Contemplations La Légende des siècles considered poetic masterpieces, Hugo's verse having been compared that of Shakespeare Dante Homer His novel Les Misérables widely seen one of greatest novel ever written Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popularOther major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers Count of Monte-Cristo) Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under Sea) Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart) Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine) Guy de Maupassant Théophile Gautier Stendhal (The Red Black Charterhouse of Parma) whose works among most well known France world Prix Goncourt French literary prize first awarded 1903 Important writers of 20th century include Marcel Proust Louis-Ferdinand Céline Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular decades with children adults around worldof 2014 French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nationfirst Nobel Prize Literature was French author while France's latest Nobel prize literature Patrick Modiano who was awarded prize 2014 Jean-Paul Sartre was also first nominee committee's history refuse prize 1964Philosophy, See also Taxation France The Eiffel Tower world's most visited paid monument icon of both Paris FranceThe Château de Marqueyssac featuring French formal garden one of Remarkable Gardens of FranceWith 83 million foreign tourists 2012, France ranked first tourist destination world ahead of United States (67 million) China (58 million) This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours such North Europeans crossing France their way Spain or Italy third income from tourism due shorter duration of visitsmost popular tourist sites include (annual visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Château de Versailles (2.8 million) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million) Pont du Gard (1.5 million) Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million) Mont Saint-Michel (1 million) Sainte-Chapelle (683,000) Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000) Puy de Dôme (500,000) Musée Picasso (441,000) Carcassonne (362,000)Paris. ECE Lyon (École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon) The Lycée Louis-le-Grand Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté Frankish expansion from 481 843/870At end of Antiquity period ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms remaining Gallo-Roman territory known Kingdom of Syagrius Simultaneously Celtic Britons fleeing Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain settled western part of Armorica result Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany Celtic culture was revived independent petty kingdoms arose this regionThe pagan Franks from whom ancient name of Francie was derived originally settled north part of Gaul but under Clovis I conquered most of other kingdoms northern central Gaul 498 Clovis I was first Germanic conqueror after fall of Roman Empire convert Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism thus France was given title Eldest daughter of Church (French La fille aînée de l'Église) papacy, French kings would be called the Most Christian Kings of France (Rex Christianissimus)painting of Clovis I conversion Catholicism 498 king being baptized tub cathedral surrounded bishop monks. Ariane four rocket taking off past tower Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia.
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