Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics. In South America French GuianaIn Atlantic Ocean Saint Pierre Miquelon and Antilles Guadeloupe Martinique Saint Martin Saint BarthélemyIn Pacific Ocean French Polynesia special collectivity of New Caledonia Wallis Futuna Clipperton IslandIn Indian Ocean Réunion island Mayotte Kerguelen Islands Crozet Islands St Paul Amsterdam islands Scattered Islands Indian Ocean.
The Romans conquered Paris Basin 52 BC began their settlement Paris's Left BankRoman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully Lutetia Parisiorum Lutetia of Parisii) became prosperous city with forum baths temples theatres amphitheatreBy end of Western Roman Empire town was known Parisius Latin name that would later become Paris French Christianity was introduced middle of 3rd century AD Saint Denis first Bishop of Paris according legend when he refused renounce his faith before Roman occupiers he was beheaded hill which became known Mons Martyrum (Latin Hill of Martyrs) later Montmartre from where he walked headless north of city place where he fell was buried became important religious shrine Basilica of Saint-Denis many French kings buried thereClovis Frank first king of Merovingian dynasty made city his capital from 508 Frankish domination of Gaul began there was gradual immigration Franks Paris Parisian Francien dialects were born Fortification of Île-de-la-Citie failed avert sacking Vikings 845 but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established successful defence Siege of Paris (885–86) 987 Hugh Capet Count of Paris (comte de Paris) Duke of Franks (duc des Francs) was elected King of Franks (roi des Francs) Under rule of Capetian kings Paris gradually became largest most prosperous city FranceMiddle Ages Louis XIV. ECE Lyon (École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon), French cuisine also regarded key element of quality of life attractiveness of FranceFrench publication Michelin guide awards Michelin stars excellence select few establishmentsacquisition or loss of star can have dramatic effects success of restaurant 2006 Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars French restaurants that time more than any other country although guide also inspects more restaurants France than any other country (by 2010 Japan was awarded many Michelin stars France despite having half number of Michelin inspectors working there)In addition its wine tradition France also major producer of beer rum three main French brewing regions Alsace (60% of national production) Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lorraine meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert France produces rum via distilleries located islands such Reunion Island southern Indian OceanSports. The Historic Site of Lyon was designated UNESCO World Heritage Site 1998 its designation UNESCO cited exceptional testimony continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia site of great commercial strategic significancespecific regions comprising Historic Site include Roman district Fourvière Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon) silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse) Presqu'île which features architecture from 12th century modern times Both Vieux Lyon slopes of Croix-Rousse known their narrow passageways (named traboules) that pass through buildings link streets either side first examples of traboules thought have been built Lyon 4th centurytraboules allowed inhabitants get from their homes Saône quickly allowed canuts Croix-Rousse hill get from their workshops textile merchants foot of hillGastronomy, During Hundred Years' War Paris was occupied England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418 before being occupied outright English when Henry V of England entered French capital 1420 spite of 1429 effort Joan of Arc liberate city, would remain under English occupation until 1436In late 16th-century French Wars of Religion Paris was stronghold of Catholic League organisers of 24 August 1572 St Bartholomew's Day massacre which thousands of French Protestants were killedconflicts ended when pretender throne Henry IV after converting Catholicism gain entry capital entered city 1594 claimed crown of France This king made several improvements capital during his reign he completed construction of Paris's first uncovered sidewalk-lined bridge Pont Neuf built Louvre extension connecting Tuileries Palace created first Paris residential square Place Royale now Place des Vosges king would end his life capital assassinated narrow street near Les Halles marketplace 1610During 17th century Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of Louis XIII was determined make Paris most beautiful city Europe He built five new bridges new chapel College of Sorbonne palace himself Palais Cardinal which he bequeathed Louis XIII After Richelieu's death 1642 was renamed Palais-RoyalDue Parisian uprisings during Fronde civil war Louis XIV moved his court new palace Versailles 1682 Although no longer capital of France arts sciences city flourished with Comédie-Française Academy of Painting French Academy of Sciences demonstrate that city was safe from attack king had city walls demolished replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become Grands Boulevards of today Other marks of his reign were Collège des Quatre-Nations Place Vendôme Place des Victoires Les Invalides18th 19th centuries, The Paris region most active water transport area France with most of cargo handled Ports of Paris facilities located around Paris rivers Loire Rhine Rhone Meuse Scheldt can be reached canals connecting with Seine which include Canal Saint-Martin Canal Saint-Denis Canal de l'OurcqCycling. The Stade de France was built 1998 FIFA World Cup listed UEFA category four stadiumThe French Open also called Roland-Garros major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May early June Stade Roland-Garros Paris premier clay court tennis championship event world second of four annual Grand Slam tournamentsRugby union popular particularly Paris southwest of Francenational rugby union team has competed every Rugby World Cup takes part annual Six Nations Championship Stemming from strong domestic league French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships including 8 grand slams has reached semi-final of Rugby World Cup 6 times going final 3 timesRugby league France mostly played followed South of France cities such Perpignan Toulouse Catalans Dragons Toulouse Olympique most notable clubs currently playing Super League RFL Championship top-tier rugby league competitions Europe Elite One Championship professional competition rugby league clubs FranceIn recent decades France has produced world-elite basketball players most notably Tony Parker French National Basketball Team won gold FIBA EuroBasket 2013 national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals 2000 1948Paris (French pronunciation [paʁi] (About this sound listen)) capital most populous city of France with area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) population of 2,206,488 With 200,000 inhabitants 1328 Paris then already capital of France was most populous city of Europe comparison London 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants Since 17th century Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance commerce fashion science music painting Paris Region had GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) 2016 accounting 31 per cent of GDP of France2013–2014 Paris Region had third-highest GDP world largest regional GDP EU According Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2018 Paris was second-most expensive city world behind Singapore ahead of Zurich Hong Kong Oslo GenevaThe City of Paris's administrative limits form East-West oval centred island its historical heart Île de la Cité this island near top of arc of river Seine that divides city into southern Rive Gauche (Left Bank) northern Rive Droite regions Paris core of built-up area that extends well beyond its limits commonly referred agglomération Parisienne statistically unité urbaine (a measure of urban area) Paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made largest urban area European Union.[not citation given] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this statistical aire urbaine de Paris (a measure of metropolitan area) that had 2013 population of 12,405,426, number one-fifth population of France, largest metropolitan area EurozoneThe city major rail highway air-transport hub served two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport Europe after London Heathrow Airport with 69.5 million passengers 2017) Paris-Orly Opened 1900 city's subway system Paris Métro serves 5.23 million passengers daily, second busiest metro system Europe after Moscow Metro Paris's Gare du Nord one of ten busiest railway stations world with 262 million passengers 2015Paris especially known its museums architectural landmarks Louvre was most visited art museum world 2017 with 8.1 million visitorsMusée d'Orsay Musée de l'Orangerie noted their collections of French Impressionist art Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has largest collection of modern contemporary art Europe historical district along Seine city centre classified UNESCO Heritage Site Popular landmarks centre of city include Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle both Île de la Cité Eiffel Tower constructed Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 Grand Palais Petit Palais built Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 Arc de Triomphe Champs-Élysées Basilica of Sacré-Coeur hill of Montmartre Paris received 23 million visitors 2017 measured hotel stays with largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from United States UK Germany Chinawas ranked third most visited travel destination world 2017 after Bangkok LondonThe football club Paris Saint-Germain rugby union club Stade Français based Paris 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis Paris hosts annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament red clay of Roland Garros Paris hosted Olympic Games 1900 1924 will host 2024 Summer Olympics 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups 2007 Rugby World Cup 1960 1984 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held city and every July Tour de France bicycle race finishes thereEtymology; Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology, The Louvre drawing of Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 smoke of gunfire enveloping stone castle, Outside central Marseille Main article Economy of Paris.