A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (ΜΑΣΣΑ[ΛΙΑ]) dated 375–200 BC during Hellenistic period of Marseille bearing head of Greek goddess Artemis obverse lion reverse, Republican marches were organised across France after January 2015 Île-de-France attacks perpetrated Islamic terrorists they largest public rallies French historySince 19th century France has received many immigrants These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed During 1970s France faced economic crisis allowed new immigrants (mostly from Maghreb) permanently settle France with their families acquire French citizenship resulted hundreds of thousands of Muslims (especially larger cities) living subsidised public housing suffering from very high unemployment rates Simultaneously France renounced assimilation of immigrants where they were expected adhere French traditional values cultural norms They were encouraged retain their distinctive cultures traditions required merely integrateSince 1995 Paris Métro RER bombings France has been sporadically targeted Islamist organisations notably Charlie Hebdo attack January 2015 which provoked largest public rallies French history gathering 4.4 million people, November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted 130 deaths deadliest attack French soil since World War II, deadliest European Union since Madrid train bombings 2004 2016 Nice attack which caused 87 deaths during Bastille Day celebrationsGeography; Franche- French literary figures Clockwise from top left Molière most played author Comédie-Française Victor Hugo one of most important French novelists poets 19th-century poet writer translator Charles Baudelaire 20th-century philosopher novelist Jean-Paul SartreJean Racine whose incredible mastery of alexandrine of French language has been praised centuries created plays such Phèdre or Britannicus He is along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) Molière considered one of three great dramatists of France's golden age Molière who deemed be one of greatest masters of comedy of Western literature, wrote dozens of plays including Le Misanthrope L'Avare Le Malade imaginaire Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme His plays have been so popular around world that French language sometimes dubbed the language of Molière (la langue de Molière), just like English considered the language of ShakespeareFrench literature poetry flourished even more 18th 19th centuries Denis Diderot's best-known works Jacques Fatalist Rameau's Nephew He however best known being main redactor of Encyclopédie whose aim was sum up all knowledge of his century (in fields such arts sciences languages philosophy) present them people order fight ignorance obscurantism During that same century Charles Perrault was prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss Boots Cinderella Sleeping Beauty Bluebeard start of 19th century symbolist poetry was important movement French literature with poets such Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéphane MallarméThe 19th century saw writings of many renowned French authors Victor Hugo sometimes seen the greatest French writer of all times excelling all literary genres preface of his play Cromwell considered be manifesto of Romantic movement Les Contemplations La Légende des siècles considered poetic masterpieces, Hugo's verse having been compared that of Shakespeare Dante Homer His novel Les Misérables widely seen one of greatest novel ever written Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popularOther major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers Count of Monte-Cristo) Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under Sea) Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart) Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine) Guy de Maupassant Théophile Gautier Stendhal (The Red Black Charterhouse of Parma) whose works among most well known France world Prix Goncourt French literary prize first awarded 1903 Important writers of 20th century include Marcel Proust Louis-Ferdinand Céline Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular decades with children adults around worldof 2014 French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nationfirst Nobel Prize Literature was French author while France's latest Nobel prize literature Patrick Modiano who was awarded prize 2014 Jean-Paul Sartre was also first nominee committee's history refuse prize 1964Philosophy; Sailing major sport Marseille wind conditions allow regattas warm waters of Mediterranean. Throughout most seasons of year can be windy while sea remains smooth enough allow sailing Marseille has been host of 8 (2010) Match Race France events which part of World Match Racing Tour event draws world's best sailing teams Marseille identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) raced two time water dogfight which tests sailors skippers limits of their physical abilities Points accrued count towards World Match Racing Tour place final event with overall winner taking title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion Match racing ideal sport spectators Marseille racing close proximity shore provides excellent views city was also considered possible venue 2007 America's CupMarseille also place other water sports such windsurfing powerboating Marseille has three golf courses city has dozens of gyms several public swimming pools Running also popular many of Marseille's parks such Le Pharo Le Jardin Pierre Puget annual footrace held between city neighbouring Cassis Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale, La Martiniere Lyon, The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated 2013 MuCEM devoted history culture of European Mediterranean civilisations adjacent Villa Méditerranée international centre cultural artistic interchange partially constructed underwater site linked footbridges Fort Saint-Jean PanierThe Musée Regards de Provence opened 2013 located between Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur Fort Saint-Jean occupies converted port building constructed 1945 monitor control potential sea-borne health hazards particular epidemics now houses permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence well temporary exhibitionsThe Musée du Vieux Marseille housed 16th-century Maison Diamantée describing everyday life Marseille from 18th century onwardsThe Musée des Docks Romains preserves situ remains of Roman commercial warehouses has small collection of objects dating from Greek period Middle Ages that were uncovered site or retrieved from shipwrecksThe Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille) devoted history of town located Centre Bourse contains remains of Greek Roman history of Marseille well best preserved hull of 6th-century boat world Ancient remains from Hellenic port displayed adjacent archeological gardens Jardin des VestigesThe Musée Cantini museum of modern art near Palais de Justice houses artworks associated with Marseille well several works PicassoThe Musée Grobet-Labadié opposite Palais Longchamp houses exceptional collection of European objets d'art old musical instrumentsThe 19th-century Palais Longchamp designed Esperandieu located Parc Longchamp Built grand scale this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls jeux d'eau marks masks entry point of Canal de Provence into Marseille Its two wings house Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum) Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille)The Château Borély located Parc Borély park off Bay of Marseille with Jardin botanique E.M Heckel botanical garden Museum of Decorative Arts Fashion Ceramics (fr) opened renovated château June 2013The Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille (fr) (MAC) museum of contemporary art opened 1994 devoted American European art from 1960s present dayThe Musée du Terroir Marseillais (fr) Château-Gombert devoted Provençal crafts traditionsThe MuCEM Musée Regards de Provence Villa Mediterannée with Notre Dame de la Majeur right. Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens. 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north); The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera, Hollywood-style Marseille sign Parisian hills hydrology Musée des Confluences new museum of sciences anthropology which opened its doors 20 December 2014La Sucrière contemporary art centre.
Solo Parigi è degna di Roma solo Roma è degna di Parigi (in Italian) Hollywood-style Marseille sign The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France. Dining room of Vagenende Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897 Hermitage Museum, IDRAC (International School of Management) The Government of France has run budget deficit each year since early 1970s of 2016 French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros equivalent of 96.4% of French GDPlate 2012 credit rating agencies warned that growing French Government debt levels risked France's AAA credit rating raising possibility of future downgrade subsequent higher borrowing costs French authoritiesEconomy. Examples of France's military Clockwise from top left nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling valleys of Kapisa province Afghanistan Leclerc tankThe French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) military paramilitary forces of France under President of Republic supreme commander They consist of French Army (Armée de Terre) French Navy (Marine Nationale formerly called Armée de Mer) French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) French Strategic Nuclear Force (Force Nucléaire Stratégique nicknamed Force de Frappe or Strike Force) Military Police called National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) which also fulfils civil police duties rural areas of France Together they among largest armed forces world largest EUWhile Gendarmerie integral part of French armed forces (gendarmes career soldiers) therefore under purview of Ministry of Armed Forces operationally attached Ministry of Interior far its civil police duties concernedWhen acting general purpose police force Gendarmerie encompasses counter terrorist units of Parachute Intervention Squadron of National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) Search Sections of National Gendarmerie (Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale) responsible criminal enquiries Mobile Brigades of National Gendarmerie (Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale or short Gendarmerie mobile) which have task maintain public orderThe following special units also part of Gendarmerie Republican Guard (Garde républicaine) which protects public buildings hosting major French institutions Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) serving Coast Guard Provost Service (Prévôté) acting Military Police branch of GendarmerieBastille Day Paris, Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion. Lyon home football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL) whose men's team plays Ligue 1 has won championship of that competition seven times all consecutively from 2002 2008) OL played until December 2015 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland which also hosted matches of 1998 FIFA World Cup Since 2016 team has played Parc Olympique Lyonnais 59,000-seat stadium located eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu OL operates women's team Olympique Lyonnais Féminin which competes dominates Division 1 Féminine They streak of 11 top-flight championships (2007–present) additionally claim four titles won original incarnation of FC Lyon women's football club that merged into OL 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded 2009) OL women have also won UEFA Women's Champions League five times including two most recent editions 2016 2017Lyon has rugby union team Lyon OU Top 14 which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time 2017–18 addition Lyon has rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays French rugby league championship club's home Stade Georges Lyvet VilleurbanneLyon also home Lyon Hockey Club ice hockey team that competes France's national ice hockey league Patinoire Charlemagne seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina Gwendal Peizerat world champions Isabelle Delobel Olivier Shoenfelder Villeurbanne also has basketball team ASVEL that plays Astroballe arenaStreet art! Pierre Mignard Self-portrait between 1670 1690 oil canvas 235 cm × 188 cm (93 × 74 in) Louvre, Théâtre des Célestins (1877) designed Gaspard André In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are; ComtéCentre-Val de Loire, Nouvelle- Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire, Île-de- Hauts-de- Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture. Marseille Provence Airport fifth busiest FranceThe city served international airport Marseille Provence Airport located Marignane airport fifth busiest French airport known 4th most important European traffic growth 2012extensive network of motorways connects Marseille north west (A7) Aix-en-Provence north (A51) Toulon (A50) French Riviera (A8) eastGare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille's main railway station operates direct regional services Aix-en-Provence Briançon Toulon Avignon Nice Montpellier Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes etc Gare Saint-Charles also one of main terminal stations TGV south of France making Marseille reachable three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) just over one half hours from Lyon There also direct TGV lines Lille Brussels Nantes Geneva Strasbourg Frankfurt well Eurostar services London addition night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg Strasbourg stops here its way Nice whereas night train from Paris Nice serves Gare de Marseille-Blancarde (fr)There new long distance bus station adjacent new modern extension Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly other Bouches-du-Rhône towns including buses Aix-en-Provence Cassis La Ciotat Aubagne city also served with 11 other regional trains stations east north of cityMarseille has large ferry terminal Gare Maritime with services Corsica Sardinia Algeria TunisiaPublic transport!