France secular country freedom of religion constitutional right French religious policy based concept of laïcité strict separation of church state under which public life kept completely secularAccording survey held 2016 Institut Montaigne Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) 51.1% of total population of France was Christian of that year same time 39.6% of population had no religion (atheism or agnosticism) 5.6% were Muslims 2.5% were followers of other faiths remaining 0.4% were undecided about their faith Estimates of number of Muslims France vary widely 2003 French Ministry of Interior estimated total number of people of Muslim background be between 5 6 million (8–10%)current Jewish community France (as of 2016 about 0.8% of population religious Jews) largest Europe third-largest world after those Israel United StatesNotre-Dame de Reims façade gothic stone cathedral against blue sky, Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th 18th century) church masterpiece of Baroque architecture Main articles Kingdom of France Capetian dynasty Valois dynasty Bourbon dynasty. CorsicaFrench GuianaGuadeloupeMartiniqueMayotteRéunionBelgiumLuxembourgGermanySwitzerlandItalyUnited KingdomAndorraBrazilSurinameSpainChannelBay of The Opéra de Marseille.
Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility GrenobleFrance was fourth country achieve nuclear capability has third largest nuclear weapons arsenal world also leader civilian nuclear technology France was third nation after former USSR United States launch its own space satellite remains biggest contributor European Space Agency (ESA)European Airbus formed from French group Aérospatiale along with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) designs develops civil military aircraft well communications systems missiles space rockets helicopters satellites related systems France also hosts major international research instruments such European Synchrotron Radiation Facility or Institut Laue–Langevin remains major member of CERN also owns Minatec Europe's leading nanotechnology research centerSNCF French national railroad company has developed TGV high speed train which holds series of world speed records TGV has been fastest wheeled train commercial use since reaching speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) 3 April 2007 Western Europe now serviced network of TGV linesAs of 2018 69 French people have been awarded Nobel Prize 12 have received Fields MedalDemographics. The Eiffel Tower La Défense disctrictThe economy of City of Paris based largely services commerce of 390,480 enterprises city 80.6 percent engaged commerce transportation diverse services 6.5 percent construction just 3.8 percent industrystory similar Paris Region (Île-de-France) 76.7 percent of enterprises engaged commerce services 3.4 percent industryAt 2012 census 59.5% of jobs Paris Region were market services (12.0% wholesale retail trade 9.7% professional scientific technical services 6.5% information communication 6.5% transportation warehousing 5.9% finance insurance 5.8% administrative support services 4.6% accommodation food services 8.5% various other market services) 26.9% non-market services (10.4% human health social work activities 9.6% public administration defence 6.9% education) 8.2% manufacturing utilities (6.6% manufacturing 1.5% utilities) 5.2% construction 0.2% agricultureThe Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees 2010 of whom 2.2 million were concentrated 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts largest of these terms of number of employees known French QCA or quartier central des affaires western part of City of Paris 2nd 8th 9th 16th 18th arrondissements 2010 was workplace of 500,000 salaried employees about 30 percent of salaried employees Paris 10 percent of those Île-de-France largest sectors of activity central business district were finance insurance (16 percent of employees district) business services (15 percent) district also includes large concentration of department stores shopping areas hotels restaurants well government offices ministriesThe second-largest business district terms of employment La Défense just west of city where many companies installed their offices 1990s 2010 was workplace of 144,600 employees of whom 38 percent worked finance insurance 16 percent business support services Two other important districts Neuilly-sur-Seine Levallois-Perret extensions of Paris business district of La Défense Another district including Boulogne-Billancourt Issy-les-Moulineaux southern part of 15th arrondissement centre of activity media information technologyThe top ten French companies listed Fortune Global 500 2018 all have their headquarters Paris Region six central business district of City of Paris four close city Hauts-de-Seine Department three La Défense one Boulogne-Billancourt Some companies like Société Générale have offices both Paris La DéfenseThe Paris Region France's leading region economic activity with GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita2011 its GDP ranked second among regions of Europe its per-capita GDP was 4th highest Europe While Paris region's population accounted 18.8 percent of metropolitan France 2011, Paris region's GDP accounted 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDPThe Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry high-value-added service industries (finance services) high-tech manufacturing (electronics optics aerospace etc.)Paris region's most intense economic activity through central Hauts-de-Seine department suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre west of city triangle between Opéra Garnier La Défense Val de Seine While Paris economy dominated services employment manufacturing sector has declined sharply region remains important manufacturing centre particularly aeronautics automobiles eco industriesIn 2017 worldwide cost of living survey Economist Intelligence Unit based survey made September 2016 Paris ranked seventh most expensive city world second most expensive Europe after ZurichEmployment, Claude Monet founded Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol 1886 Musée d'Orsay)The 17th century was period when French painting became prominent individualised itself through classicism Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded 1648 Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture protect these artists 1666 he created still-active French Academy Rome have direct relations with Italian artistsFrench artists developed rococo style 18th century more intimate imitation of old baroque style works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau François Boucher Jean-Honoré Fragonard being most representative country French Revolution brought great changes Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such Jacques-Louis David highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined style known Academism this time France had become centre of artistic creation first half of 19th century being dominated two successive movements first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault Eugène Delacroix Realism with Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Jean-François Millet style that eventually evolved into NaturalismThe Thinker bronze statue from 1902 from Musée Rodin Paris. Côte d'AzurCorsica Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes A map of Greater Paris Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris) its 131 communes. See also Religious buildings Paris Marine (blue) regional (green) national (red) parks France IDRAC (International School of Management). Tour IncityMuseums Main article French architecture Main articles Kingdom of France Capetian dynasty Valois dynasty Bourbon dynasty Catholicism has been predominant religion France more than millennium though not actively practised today was Among 47,000 religious buildings France 94% Roman Catholic During French Revolution activists conducted brutal campaign of de-Christianisation ending Catholic Church state religion some cases clergy churches were attacked with iconoclasm stripping churches of statues ornament After back forth of Catholic royal secular republican governments during 19th century France established laïcité passage of 1905 law Separation of Churches StateSince 1905 French Government has followed principle of laïcité which prohibited from recognising any specific right religious community (except legacy statutes like those of military chaplains local law Alsace-Moselle) recognises religious organisations according formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine Conversely religious organisations expected refrain from intervening policy-making Certain groups such Scientology Children of God Unification Church or Order of Solar Temple considered cults (sectes French), therefore do not have same status recognised religions France Secte considered pejorative term FranceHealth. Transport Pieds paquets, Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry (1994) Santiago Calatrava, Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes. The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate, 4th arrondissement Plateau de la Croix-Rousse Serin, The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France. Francophone minorities Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture.