France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Paris its suburbs seen from Spot Satellite, See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region. Main article French Armed Forces Main article Sport France The Calanque of Sugiton 9th arrondissement of Marseille. Rhône-AlpesOccitanie Rue de Rivoli Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different. Parc de Parilly (178 hectares)Education, Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present)! BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine Motorways around Marseille, The Maison Carrée was temple of Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) one of best-preserved vestiges of Roman EmpireIn 600 BC Ionian Greeks originating from Phocaea founded colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) shores of Mediterranean Sea This makes France's oldest city same time some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of current territory of France this occupation spread rest of France between 5th 3rd century BCThe Roman-era Theatre of Autun (Latin Augustodunum) Saône-et-Loire one of main historical sites of BurgundyThe concept of Gaul emerged that time corresponds territories of Celtic settlement ranging between Rhine Atlantic Ocean Pyrenees Mediterranean borders of modern France roughly same those of ancient Gaul which was inhabited Celtic Gauls Gaul was then prosperous country of which southernmost part was heavily subject Greek Roman cultural economic influencesAround 125 BC south of Gaul was conquered Romans who called this region Provincia Nostra (Our Province) which over time evolved into name Provence French Julius Caesar conquered remainder of Gaul overcame revolt carried out Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix 52 BC Gaul was divided Augustus into Roman provinces Many cities were founded during Gallo-Roman period including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon) which considered capital of Gauls These cities were built traditional Roman style with forum theatre circus amphitheatre thermal baths Gauls mixed with Roman settlers eventually adopted Roman culture Roman speech (Latin from which French language evolved) Roman polytheism merged with Gallic paganism into same syncretismFrom 250s 280s AD Roman Gaul suffered serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked several occasions barbarians Nevertheless situation improved first half of 4th century which was period of revival prosperity Roman Gaul312 Emperor Constantin I converted Christianity Subsequently Christians who had been persecuted until then increased rapidly across entire Roman Empire But from beginning of 5th century Barbarian Invasions resumed, Germanic tribes such Vandals Suebi Alans crossed Rhine settled Gaul Spain other parts of collapsing Roman EmpireEarly Middle Ages (5th century–10th century), Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799); FranceGrand Est Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897 Hermitage Museum, The movie industry was born Paris when Auguste Louis Lumière projected first motion picture paying audience Grand Café 28 December 1895 Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when media became popular beginning 1930s Later most of largest cinemas were divided into multiple smaller rooms Paris's largest cinema room today Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seatsBig multiplex cinemas have been built since 1990s UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens among largestParisians tend share same movie-going trends many of world's global cities with cinemas primarily dominated Hollywood-generated film entertainment French cinema comes close second with major directors (réalisateurs) such Claude Lelouch Jean-Luc Godard Luc Besson more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi example European Asian films also widely shown appreciated2 February 2000 Philippe Binant realised first digital cinema projection Europe with DLP CINEMA technology developed Texas Instruments ParisRestaurants cuisine. National Gendarmerie See also Marseille-Provence 2013, Transport 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland, Antiquity The city boasts wide variety of sports facilities teams most popular team city's football club Olympique de Marseille which was finalist of UEFA Champions League 1991 before winning competition 1993 club also became finalists of UEFA Europa League 1999 2004 2018 club had history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie club's home Stade Vélodrome which can seat around 67,000 people also functions other local sports well national rugby team Stade Velodrome hosted number of games during 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup UEFA Euro 2016 local rugby teams Marseille XIII Marseille Vitrolles Rugby. Marseille famous its important pétanque activity even renowned pétanque capitale2012 Marseille hosted Pétanque World Championship city hosts every year Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque main pétanque competitionMatch Race France 2008. The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found], Opéra Nouvel (1831) renovated 1993 Jean Nouvel BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine See also List of most visited museums.
Catholic University of Lyon map of population France Universities tertiary education. Hindu (4,000) The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture, Opéra Garnier Paris symbol of French Second Empire style. A relief map of Metropolitan France showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitantsPanorama of Mont Blanc mountain range above gray clouds under blue sky, Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire! Main article Music of France Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists Paris. The Government of France has run budget deficit each year since early 1970s of 2016 French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros equivalent of 96.4% of French GDPlate 2012 credit rating agencies warned that growing French Government debt levels risked France's AAA credit rating raising possibility of future downgrade subsequent higher borrowing costs French authoritiesEconomy! Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed Le Corbusier Paris located northern central France north-bending arc of river Seine whose crest includes two islands Île Saint-Louis larger Île de la Cité which form oldest part of city river's mouth English Channel (La Manche) about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from city city spread widely both banks of river Overall city relatively flat lowest point 35 m (115 ft) above sea level Paris has several prominent hills highest of which Montmartre 130 m (427 ft)Excluding outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris covers oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) area enclosed 35 km (22 mi) ring road Boulevard Périphériquecity's last major annexation of outlying territories 1860 not only gave its modern form but also created 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs) From 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi) city limits were expanded marginally 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) 1920s 1929 Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed city bringing its area about 105 km2 (41 sq mi)metropolitan area of city 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi)Measured from 'point zero' front of its Notre-Dame cathedral Paris road 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of RouenClimate.