Main article Prehistory of France. The sectors arrondissements of Marseille In late 12th century school of polyphony was established Notre-Dame Among Trouvères of northern France group of Parisian aristocrats became known their poetry songs Troubadours from south of France were also popular During reign of François I Renaissance era lute became popular French court French royal family courtiers disported themselves masques ballets allegorical dances recitals opera comedy national musical printing house was established Baroque-era noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully Jean-Philippe Rameau François CouperinConservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded 17951870 Paris had become important centre symphony ballet operatic musicRomantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique) Charles Gounod (Faust) Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah) Léo Delibes (Lakmé) Jules Massenet (Thaïs) among others Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875 Carmen has since become one of most popular frequently-performed operas classical canon Among Impressionist composers who created new works piano orchestra opera chamber music other musical forms stand particular Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque its well-known third movement Clair de lune La Mer Pelléas et Mélisande) Erik Satie (Gymnopédies Je te veux Gnossiennes Parade) Maurice Ravel (Miroirs Boléro La valse L'heure espagnole) Several foreign-born composers such Frédéric Chopin (Poland) Franz Liszt (Hungary) Jacques Offenbach (Germany) Niccolò Paganini (Italy) Igor Stravinsky (Russia) established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works their influence ParisCharles Aznavour, Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th 18th century) church masterpiece of Baroque architecture.
Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present), Main article Paris Métro The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport; The Paris Métro busiest subway network European UnionSince inauguration of its first line 1900 Paris's Métro (subway) network has grown become city's most widely used local transport system today carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines 303 stations (385 stops) 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails Superimposed this 'regional express network' RER whose five lines (A B C D E) 257 stops 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris more distant parts of urban areaOver €26.5 billion will be invested over next 15 years extend Métro network into suburbs, with notably Grand Paris Express projectIn addition Paris region served light rail network of nine lines tramway Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers Noisy-le-Sec Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons Porte de Versailles Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano Porte de Vincennes Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes Porte de la Chapelle Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis Garges-Sarcelles Line T6 runs from Châtillon Viroflay Line T7 runs from Villejuif Athis-Mons Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis Épinay-sur-Seine Villetaneuse all of which operated RATP Group, line T4 runs from Bondy RER Aulnay-sous-Bois which operated state rail carrier SNCF Five new light rail lines currently various stages of developmentAir, Main articles History of Lyon Timeline of Lyon, A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway. See also Urban area (France) Urban unit, Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms, The Eiffel Tower world's most visited paid monument icon of both Paris FranceThe Château de Marqueyssac featuring French formal garden one of Remarkable Gardens of FranceWith 83 million foreign tourists 2012, France ranked first tourist destination world ahead of United States (67 million) China (58 million) This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours such North Europeans crossing France their way Spain or Italy third income from tourism due shorter duration of visitsmost popular tourist sites include (annual visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Château de Versailles (2.8 million) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million) Pont du Gard (1.5 million) Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million) Mont Saint-Michel (1 million) Sainte-Chapelle (683,000) Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000) Puy de Dôme (500,000) Musée Picasso (441,000) Carcassonne (362,000)Paris. Lyon home football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL) whose men's team plays Ligue 1 has won championship of that competition seven times all consecutively from 2002 2008) OL played until December 2015 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland which also hosted matches of 1998 FIFA World Cup Since 2016 team has played Parc Olympique Lyonnais 59,000-seat stadium located eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu OL operates women's team Olympique Lyonnais Féminin which competes dominates Division 1 Féminine They streak of 11 top-flight championships (2007–present) additionally claim four titles won original incarnation of FC Lyon women's football club that merged into OL 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded 2009) OL women have also won UEFA Women's Champions League five times including two most recent editions 2016 2017Lyon has rugby union team Lyon OU Top 14 which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time 2017–18 addition Lyon has rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays French rugby league championship club's home Stade Georges Lyvet VilleurbanneLyon also home Lyon Hockey Club ice hockey team that competes France's national ice hockey league Patinoire Charlemagne seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina Gwendal Peizerat world champions Isabelle Delobel Olivier Shoenfelder Villeurbanne also has basketball team ASVEL that plays Astroballe arenaStreet art.