Dentistry made simply simpler.
See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Hector Berlioz 1863 On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography, Main article Parks Lyon. Caves Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil part of UNESCO Prehistoric Sites Decorated Caves of Vézère ValleyGeological formations near Roussillon Vaucluse dating back Post-classical historyMetropolitan France has wide variety of topographical sets natural landscapes Large parts of current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like Hercynian uplift Paleozoic Era during which Armorican Massif Massif Central Morvan Vosges Ardennes ranges island of Corsica were formed These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such Aquitaine basin southwest Paris basin north latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such silt beds of Beauce Brie Various routes of natural passage such Rhône valley allow easy communications Alpine Pyrenean Jura mountains much younger have less eroded forms 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level Mont Blanc located Alps French Italian border highest point Western EuropeAlthough 60% of municipalities classified having seismic risks these risks remain moderate coastlines offer contrasting landscapes mountain ranges along French Riviera coastal cliffs such Côte d'Albâtre wide sandy plains Languedoc Corsica lies off Mediterranean coast France has extensive river system consisting of four major rivers Seine Loire Garonne Rhône their tributaries whose combined catchment includes over 62% of metropolitan territory Rhône divides Massif Central from Alps flows into Mediterranean Sea Camargue Other water courses drain towards Meuse Rhine along north-eastern borders France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×106 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction of which 97% overseasClimate, The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries, Emmanuel Macron French poilus sustained highest number of casualties among Allies World War IThe Cabanes du Breuil Dordogne built between 1880 1920 show that some rural parts of France remained traditional areas until recentlyFrance was member of Triple Entente when World War I broke out small part of Northern France was occupied but France its allies emerged victorious against Central Powers tremendous human material cost World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead 4% of its population Between 27 30% of soldiers conscripted from 1912–1915 were killedinterbellum years were marked intense international tensions variety of social reforms introduced Popular Front government (annual leave eight-hour workdays women government)In 1940 France was invaded occupied Nazi Germany Metropolitan France was divided into German occupation zone north Vichy France newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany south while Free France government-in-exile led Charles de Gaulle was set up London From 1942 1944 about 160,000 French citizens including around 75,000 Jews, were deported death camps concentration camps Germany occupied Poland6 June 1944 Allies invaded Normandy August they invaded Provence Over following year Allies French Resistance emerged victorious over Axis powers French sovereignty was restored with establishment of Provisional Government of French Republic (GPRF) This interim government established de Gaulle aimed continue wage war against Germany purge collaborators from office also made several important reforms (suffrage extended women creation of social security system) GPRF laid groundwork new constitutional order that resulted Fourth Republic which saw spectacular economic growth (les Trente Glorieuses) France was one of founding members of NATO (1949)Charles de Gaulle seated uniform looking left with folded arms.
Republican Guards parading Bastille Day, Tour IncityMuseums Religion France (2016) Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome. Main article Health France Main article Writers Paris Unemployment economy fell from 20% 1995 14% 2004 However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than national average some parts of Marseille youth unemployment reported be high 40%Administration. Francophone minorities France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Vieux Lyon (English Old Lyon) area Mediaeval Renaissance quarter of town with shops dining cobbled streets No religion (39.6%). Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb. Ambox rewrite.svg, Pieds paquets Minaret of Grand Mosque of Paris, Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th 18th century) church masterpiece of Baroque architecture. The most expensive residential streets Paris 2018 average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement) 22,372 Euros per square meter Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement) (20,373 Euros) Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) 18,839 Euros per square meterThe total number of residences city of Paris 2011 was 1,356,074 up from former high of 1,334,815 2006 Among these 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent 2006)Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 before 20 percent were built between 1949 1974 only 18 percent of buildings remaining were built after that dateTwo-thirds of city's 1.3 million residences studio two-room apartments Paris averages 1.9 people per residence number that has remained constant since 1980s but much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent entire Île-de-France) major part of city's population rent-paying oneSocial or public housing represented 19.9 percent of city's total residences 2017 Its distribution varies widely throughout city from 2.6 percent of housing wealthy 7th arrondissement 24 percent 20th arrondissement 26 percent 14th arrondissement 39.9 percent 19th arrondissement poorer southwest northern edges of cityOn night of February 15–16 2018 during spell of cold weather City of Paris conducted citywide count of homeless persons carried out two thousand volunteers They found 2,952 persons sleeping streets another 672 temporary shelters total of 3,600Paris its suburbs, France secular country freedom of religion constitutional right French religious policy based concept of laïcité strict separation of church state under which public life kept completely secularAccording survey held 2016 Institut Montaigne Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) 51.1% of total population of France was Christian of that year same time 39.6% of population had no religion (atheism or agnosticism) 5.6% were Muslims 2.5% were followers of other faiths remaining 0.4% were undecided about their faith Estimates of number of Muslims France vary widely 2003 French Ministry of Interior estimated total number of people of Muslim background be between 5 6 million (8–10%)current Jewish community France (as of 2016 about 0.8% of population religious Jews) largest Europe third-largest world after those Israel United StatesNotre-Dame de Reims façade gothic stone cathedral against blue sky, Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent (18th century) Neo-classical church19th century modern city.
Paris's most popular sport clubs association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C rugby union clubs Stade Français Racing 92 last of which based just outside city proper 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris commune of Saint-Denis used football rugby union track field athletics hosts French national football team friendlies major tournaments qualifiers annually hosts French national rugby team's home matches of Six Nations Championship hosts several important matches of Stade Français rugby teamaddition Paris Saint-Germain FC city has number of other professional amateur football clubs Paris FC Red Star RCF Paris Stade Français Paris2010 Tour de France Champs Élysées, Swordfish olive oil with ratatouille saffron rice Main article Culture of France A number of faculties of three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University located Marseille. French music then followed rapid emergence of pop rock music middle of 20th century Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity country French pop music known chanson française has also remained very popular Among most important French artists of century Édith Piaf Georges Brassens Léo Ferré Charles Aznavour Serge Gainsbourg Although there very few rock bands France compared English-speaking countries, bands such Noir Désir Mano Negra Niagara Les Rita Mitsouko more recently Superbus Phoenix Gojira, or Shaka Ponk have reached worldwide popularityOther French artists with international careers have been popular several countries example female singers Dalida Mireille Mathieu Mylène Farmer, Alizée Nolwenn Leroy,[verification needed] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre Laurent Garnier Bob Sinclar later Martin Solveig David Guetta 1990s 2000s (decade) electronic duos Daft Punk Justice Air also reached worldwide popularity contributed reputation of modern electronic music worldAmong current musical events institutions France many dedicated classical music operas most prestigious institutions state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier Opéra Bastille) Opéra National de Lyon Théâtre du Châtelet Paris Théâtre du Capitole Toulouse Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux music festivals there several events organised most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds French European) Solidays Rock en Seine Fête de la Musique imitated many foreign cities was first launched French Government 1982 Major music halls venues France include Le Zénith sites present many cities other places Paris (Paris Olympia Théâtre Mogador Élysée Montmartre)Cinema, Musée des Confluences new museum of sciences anthropology which opened its doors 20 December 2014La Sucrière contemporary art centre; Joan of Arc led French army several important victories during Hundred Years' War which paved way final victoryanimated gif showing changes French borders. French cuisine also regarded key element of quality of life attractiveness of FranceFrench publication Michelin guide awards Michelin stars excellence select few establishmentsacquisition or loss of star can have dramatic effects success of restaurant 2006 Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars French restaurants that time more than any other country although guide also inspects more restaurants France than any other country (by 2010 Japan was awarded many Michelin stars France despite having half number of Michelin inspectors working there)In addition its wine tradition France also major producer of beer rum three main French brewing regions Alsace (60% of national production) Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lorraine meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert France produces rum via distilleries located islands such Reunion Island southern Indian OceanSports. Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration. Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics, Bastille Day military parade Marseille 2012, Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules.
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