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Judaism (0.8%) Sculpture of Marianne common national personification of French RepublicAccording BBC poll 2010 based 29,977 responses 28 countries France globally seen positive influence world's affairs 49% have positive view of country's influence whereas 19% have negative viewNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has second best international reputation only behind Germanyglobal opinion poll BBC saw France ranked fourth most positively viewed nation world (behind Germany Canada United Kingdom) 2014According poll 2011 French were found have highest level of religious tolerance be country where highest proportion of population defines its identity primarily term of nationality not religionof 2011 75% of French had favourable view of United States making France one of most pro-American countries worldof 2017 favourable view of United States had dropped 46%January 2010 magazine International Living ranked France best country live in ahead of 193 other countries fifth year runningThe French Revolution continues permeate country's collective memory tricolour flag of France, anthem La Marseillaise motto Liberté égalité fraternité defined Title 1 of Constitution national symbols all emerged during cultural ferment of early revolution along with Marianne common national personification addition Bastille Day national holiday commemorates storming of Bastille 14 July 1789A common traditional symbol of French people Gallic rooster Its origins date back Antiquity since Latin word Gallus meant both rooster inhabitant of Gaul Then this figure gradually became most widely shared representation of French used French monarchs then Revolution under successive republican regimes representation of national identity used some stamps coinsCuisine. Main article List of French inventions discoveries, France especially Paris has some of world's largest renowned museums including Louvre which most visited art museum world (5.7 million) Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million) mostly devoted Impressionism Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million) dedicated contemporary art Disneyland Paris Europe's most popular theme park with 15 million combined visitors resort's Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park 2009French Riviera. The lake Parc de la Tête d'or Claude Monet founded Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol 1886 Musée d'Orsay)The 17th century was period when French painting became prominent individualised itself through classicism Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded 1648 Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture protect these artists 1666 he created still-active French Academy Rome have direct relations with Italian artistsFrench artists developed rococo style 18th century more intimate imitation of old baroque style works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau François Boucher Jean-Honoré Fragonard being most representative country French Revolution brought great changes Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such Jacques-Louis David highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined style known Academism this time France had become centre of artistic creation first half of 19th century being dominated two successive movements first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault Eugène Delacroix Realism with Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Jean-François Millet style that eventually evolved into NaturalismThe Thinker bronze statue from 1902 from Musée Rodin Paris. Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens. The lake Parc de la Tête d'or Bastille Day military parade Marseille 2012.
Marseille's main cultural attraction was since its creation end of 18th century until late 1970s Opéra Located near Old Port Canebière very heart of city its architectural style was comparable classical trend found other opera houses built same time Lyon Bordeaux 1919 fire almost completely destroyed house leaving only stone colonnade peristyle from original façadeclassical façade was restored opera house reconstructed predominantly Art Deco style result of major competition Currently Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each yearSince 1972 Ballet national de Marseille has performed opera house its director from its foundation 1998 was Roland PetitPopular events festivals, Jean Moulin University, Main article Law of France The Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 was most emblematic event of French RevolutionFacing financial troubles King Louis XVI summoned Estates-General (gathering three Estates of realm) May 1789 propose solutions his government came impasse representatives of Third Estate formed into National Assembly signalling outbreak of French Revolution Fearing that king would suppress newly created National Assembly insurgents stormed Bastille 14 July 1789 date which would become France's National DayIn early August 1789 National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges of nobility such personal serfdom exclusive hunting rights Through Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights men Declaration affirms the natural imprescriptible rights of man liberty property security resistance oppression Freedom of speech press were declared arbitrary arrests outlawed called destruction of aristocratic privileges proclaimed freedom equal rights all men well access public office based talent rather than birthIn November 1789 Assembly decided nationalize sell all property of Roman Catholic Church which had been largest landowner country July 1790 Civil Constitution of Clergy reorganised French Catholic Church cancelling authority of Church levy taxes et cetera This fueled much discontent parts of France which would contribute civil war breaking out some years later While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among population his disastrous flight Varennes (June 1791) seemed justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation prospects of foreign invasion His credibility was so deeply undermined that abolition of monarchy establishment of republic became increasing possibilityIn August 1791 Emperor of Austria King of Prussia Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France intervene force of arms restore French absolute monarchy September 1791 National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI accept French Constitution of 1791 thus turning French absolute monarchy into constitutional monarchy newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791) enmity developed deepened between group later called 'Girondins' who favored war with Austria Prussia group later called 'Montagnards' or 'Jacobins' who opposed such war majority Assembly 1792 however saw war with Austria Prussia chance boost popularity of revolutionary government thought that France would win war against those gathered monarchies 20 April 1792 therefore they declared war Austria.[XIV]. Main articles Arrondissements of Marseille Cantons of Marseille, Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents French impact religious architectureDuring Middle Ages many fortified castles were built feudal nobles mark their powers Some French castles that survived Chinon Château d'Angers massive Château de Vincennes so-called Cathar castles During this era France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe Some of greatest examples of Romanesque churches France Saint Sernin Basilica Toulouse largest romanesque church Europe, remains of Cluniac AbbeyThe Gothic architecture originally named Opus Francigenum meaning French work, was born Île-de-France was first French style of architecture be copied all Europe Northern France home of some of most important Gothic cathedrals basilicas first of these being Saint Denis Basilica (used royal necropolis) other important French Gothic cathedrals Notre-Dame de Chartres Notre-Dame d'Amiens kings were crowned another important Gothic church Notre-Dame de Reims Aside from churches Gothic Architecture had been used many religious palaces most important one being Palais des Papes AvignonThe final victory Hundred Years' War marked important stage evolution of French architecture was time of French Renaissance several artists from Italy were invited French court many residential palaces were built Loire Valley from 1450 with first reference Château de Montsoreau Such residential castles were Château de Chambord Château de Chenonceau or Château d'AmboisePlace de la Bourse Bordeaux example of French baroque architectureFollowing renaissance end of Middle Ages Baroque architecture replaced traditional Gothic style However France baroque architecture found greater success secular domain than religious one secular domain Palace of Versailles has many baroque features Jules Hardouin Mansart who designed extensions Versailles was one of most influential French architect of baroque era he famous his dome Les Invalides Some of most impressive provincial baroque architecture found places that were not yet French such Place Stanislas Nancy military architectural side Vauban designed some of most efficient fortresses Europe became influential military architect result imitations of his works can be found all over Europe Americas Russia TurkeyOpéra Garnier interior showing chandeliers gilded decoration, Marseille's main cultural attraction was since its creation end of 18th century until late 1970s Opéra Located near Old Port Canebière very heart of city its architectural style was comparable classical trend found other opera houses built same time Lyon Bordeaux 1919 fire almost completely destroyed house leaving only stone colonnade peristyle from original façadeclassical façade was restored opera house reconstructed predominantly Art Deco style result of major competition Currently Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each yearSince 1972 Ballet national de Marseille has performed opera house its director from its foundation 1998 was Roland PetitPopular events festivals. Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works. Later came precursors of modern classical music Érik Satie was key member of early-20th-century Parisian avant-garde best known his Gymnopédies Francis Poulenc's best known works his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919) ballet Les biches (1923) Concert champêtre (1928) harpsichord orchestra opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957) Gloria (1959) soprano choir orchestra Maurice Ravel Claude Debussy most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music Debussy was among most influential composers of late 19th early 20th centuries his use of non-traditional scales chromaticism influenced many composers who followed Debussy's music noted its sensory content frequent usage of atonality two composers invented new musical forms new sounds Ravel's piano compositions such Jeux d'eau Miroirs Le tombeau de Couperin Gaspard de la nuit demand considerable virtuosity His mastery of orchestration evident Rapsodie espagnole Daphnis et Chloé his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures Exhibition his orchestral work Boléro (1928) More recently middle of 20th century Maurice Ohana Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Boulez contributed evolutions of contemporary classical musichead shot of Serge Gainsbourg. Panorama of inner city of Lyon taken from basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière's roof, Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing, Immigration This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017).
Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon houses Musée des Hospices Civils permanent exhibit tracing history practice of medicine from Middle Ages modern times, Islam (5.6%) This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017) The city boasts wide variety of sports facilities teams most popular team city's football club Olympique de Marseille which was finalist of UEFA Champions League 1991 before winning competition 1993 club also became finalists of UEFA Europa League 1999 2004 2018 club had history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie club's home Stade Vélodrome which can seat around 67,000 people also functions other local sports well national rugby team Stade Velodrome hosted number of games during 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup UEFA Euro 2016 local rugby teams Marseille XIII Marseille Vitrolles Rugby. Marseille famous its important pétanque activity even renowned pétanque capitale2012 Marseille hosted Pétanque World Championship city hosts every year Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque main pétanque competitionMatch Race France 2008. Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III. Tour du Crédit Lyonnais Main article French fashion A Palme d'Or from Cannes Film Festival one of Big Three film festivals alongside Venice Film Festival Berlin International Film FestivalFrance has historical strong links with cinema with two Frenchmen Auguste Louis Lumière (known Lumière Brothers) having created cinema 1895 Several important cinematic movements including late 1950s 1960s Nouvelle Vague began country noted having strong film industry due part protections afforded French government France remains leader filmmaking of 2015 producing more films than any other European countrynation also hosts Cannes Festival one of most important famous film festivals worldApart from its strong innovative film tradition France has also been gathering spot artists from across Europe world this reason French cinema sometimes intertwined with cinema of foreign nations Directors from nations such Poland (Roman Polanski Krzysztof Kieślowski Andrzej Żuławski) Argentina (Gaspar Noé Edgardo Cozarinsky) Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff Anatole Litvak) Austria (Michael Haneke) Georgia (Géla Babluani Otar Iosseliani) prominent ranks of French cinema Conversely French directors have had prolific influential careers other countries such Luc Besson Jacques Tourneur or Francis Veber United StatesAlthough French film market dominated Hollywood France only nation world where American films make up smallest share of total film revenues 50% compared with 77% Germany 69% Japan French films account 35% of total film revenues of France which highest percentage of national film revenues developed world outside United States compared 14% Spain 8% UK France 2013 2nd exporter of films world after United StatesUntil recently France had centuries been cultural center of world, although its dominant position has been surpassed United States Subsequently France takes steps protecting promoting its culture becoming leading advocate of cultural exceptionnation succeeded convincing all EU members refuse include culture audiovisuals list of liberalised sectors of WTO 1993 Moreover this decision was confirmed voting UNESCO 2005 principle of cultural exception won overwhelming victory 198 countries voted it only 2 countries U.S Israel voted against itFashion. La Martiniere Lyon, The Stade Vélodrome home of Olympique de Marseille, Navette de Marseille (fr) are words of food writer M F K Fisher little boat-shaped cookies tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel smelling better than they areFarinata#French variations chickpea flour boiled into thick mush allowed firm up then cut into blocks friedPastis alcoholic beverage made with aniseed spice extremely popular regionPieds paquets dish prepared from sheep's feet offalPistou combination of crushed fresh basil garlic with olive oil similar Italian pesto Soup au pistou combines pistou broth with pasta vegetablesTapenade paste made from chopped olives capers olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added)Films set Marseille.
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