See also Marseille-Provence 2013, ComtéCentre-Val de Loire According 2012 INSEE figures 68 percent of employees City of Paris work commerce transportation services 24.4 percent public administration health social services 4.4 percent industry 0.1 percent agricultureThe majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs concentrated north-western 8th 16th 17th arrondissements Paris's financial service companies concentrated central-western 8th 9th arrondissement banking insurance district Paris's department store district 1st 6th 8th 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers with 100,000 of these registered retail trade Fourteen percent of Parisians work hotels restaurants other services individuals Nineteen percent of Paris employees work State either administration or education majority of Paris's healthcare social workers work hospitals social housing concentrated peripheral 13th 14th 18th 19th 20th arrondissements Outside Paris western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising finance insurance scientific research district employs 144,600, north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms 10 major film studiosParis's manufacturing mostly focused its suburbs city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers most of which textile clothing leather goods shoe trades Paris region manufacturing specialises transportation mainly automobiles aircraft trains but this sharp decline Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped 64 percent between 1990 2010 Paris region lost 48 percent during same period Most of this due companies relocating outside Paris region Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000 Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers many of these centred Yvelines department around Renault PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but industry whole suffered major loss with 2014 closing of major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plantThe southern Essonne department specialises science technology, south-eastern Val-de-Marne with its wholesale Rungis food market specialises food processing beveragesParis region's manufacturing decline quickly being replaced eco-industries these employ about 100,000 workers2011 while only 56,927 construction workers worked Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, activity centred largely around Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments new business-park centres appearing thereUnemployment, Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature. Paul Cézanne's Bay of Marseille Seen from L'Estaque. Electricity provided Paris through peripheral grid fed multiple sources of 2012 around 50% of electricity generated Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near outer limits of region other energy sources include Nogent nuclear power plant (35%) trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants these provide city heat well) methane gas (5%) hydraulics (1%) solar power (0.1%) negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh)quarter of Paris's district heating come from plant Saint-Ouen burning 50/50-mix of coal 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from USA per yearWater sanitation.
[email protected] The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city Main article Transport Paris. Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature. Emmanuel Macron (cropped).jpg Édouard Philippe (cropped).jpg, French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789), International regional transport 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north). The Paris Catacombs hold remains of approximately 6 million peopleIn Paris's Roman era its main cemetery was located outskirts of Left Bank settlement but this changed with rise of Catholicism where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds use their parishes With Paris's growth many of these particularly city's largest cemetery les Innocents were filled overflowing creating quite unsanitary conditions capital When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786 contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside Porte d'Enfer city gate today place Denfert-Rochereau 14th arrondissementprocess of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents catacombs took place between 1786 1814 part of network of tunnels remains can be visited today official tour of catacombsAfter tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided more definitive solution creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside city limits Open from 1804 these were cemeteries of Père Lachaise Montmartre Montparnasse later Passy these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications 1860 New suburban cemeteries were created early 20th century largest of these Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) Cimetière parisien d'Ivry Cimetière parisien de Bagneux Some of most famous people world buried Parisian cemeteriesHealthcare, CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie), The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism. Université Lumière (Lyon 2), Emmanuel Macron Polytech Lyon located Villeurbanne, Panorama of inner city of Lyon taken from basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière's roof. France especially Paris has some of world's largest renowned museums including Louvre which most visited art museum world (5.7 million) Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million) mostly devoted Impressionism Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million) dedicated contemporary art Disneyland Paris Europe's most popular theme park with 15 million combined visitors resort's Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park 2009French Riviera, Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules.
Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, See also Taxation France Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works; The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location convergence of two navigable rivers made natural communications hub city became starting point of principal Roman roads area quickly became capital of province Gallia Lugdunensis Two Emperors were born this city Claudius whose speech preserved Lyon Tablet which he justifies nomination of Gallic Senators CaracallaEarly Christians Lyon were martyred their beliefs under reigns of various Roman emperors most notably Marcus Aurelius Septimius Severus Local saints from this period include Blandina Pothinus Epipodius among others second century AD great Christian bishop of Lyon was Easterner Irenaeusthis day archbishop of Lyon still referred Primat des GaulesBurgundians fleeing destruction of Worms Huns 437 were re-settled Lugdunum 443 Romans established Kingdom of Burgundians Lugdunum became its capital 461 843 Treaty of Verdun Lyon went Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I later was made part of Kingdom of Arles Lyon did not come under French control until 14th centuryModern Lyon. Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory. French composers played important role during music of 19th early 20th century which considered be Romantic music era Romantic music emphasised surrender nature fascination with past supernatural exploration of unusual strange surprising sounds focus national identity This period was also golden age operas French composers from Romantic era included Hector Berlioz (best known his Symphonie fantastique) Georges Bizet (best known Carmen which has become one of most popular frequently performed operas) Gabriel Fauré (best known his Pavane Requiem nocturnes) Charles Gounod (best known his Ave Maria his opera Faust) Jacques Offenbach (best known his 100 operettas of 1850s–1870s his uncompleted opera Tales of Hoffmann) Édouard Lalo (best known his Symphonie espagnole violin orchestra his Cello Concerto D minor) Jules Massenet (best known his operas of which he wrote more than thirty most frequently staged Manon (1884) Werther (1892)) Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works including Carnival of Animals Danse macabre Samson Delilah (Opera) Introduction Rondo Capriccioso his Symphony No 3)Claude Debussy 1900.
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