AquitaineAuvergne-Rhône-Alpes Claude Monet founded Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol 1886 Musée d'Orsay)The 17th century was period when French painting became prominent individualised itself through classicism Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded 1648 Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture protect these artists 1666 he created still-active French Academy Rome have direct relations with Italian artistsFrench artists developed rococo style 18th century more intimate imitation of old baroque style works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau François Boucher Jean-Honoré Fragonard being most representative country French Revolution brought great changes Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such Jacques-Louis David highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined style known Academism this time France had become centre of artistic creation first half of 19th century being dominated two successive movements first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault Eugène Delacroix Realism with Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Jean-François Millet style that eventually evolved into NaturalismThe Thinker bronze statue from 1902 from Musée Rodin Paris. Sculpture dedicated Rome square Paul Painlevé Paris Wesford Graduate Business School Marseille listed major centre of art history city has many museums galleries there many ancient buildings churches of historical interestCentral Marseille; Main article Telecommunications France France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type. Main article French fashion, From left right La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks) ferry ship docks new port Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) surrounding areas, painting of Napoleon 1806 standing with hand vest attended staff Imperial guard regiment; See description In first trimester of 2018 unemployment rate city of Paris was 7.1 percent provisional unemployment rate whole Paris Region was higher 8.0 percent considerably higher some suburbs notably Department of Seine-Saint-Denis east (11.8 percent) Val-d'Oise north (8.2 percent)Incomes.
With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century). Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France, Montessori School of LyonSupplementary education See also Paris Middle Ages Paris 16th century Paris 17th century. Opéra Nouvel (1831) renovated 1993 Jean Nouvel BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine Main article Administration of Paris France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. According historian Dio Cassius 43 BC Roman Senate ordered creation of settlement Roman refugees of war with Allobroges These refugees had been expelled from Vienne were now encamped confluence of Saône Rhône rivers foundation was built Fourvière hill officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia name invoking prosperity blessing of gods city became increasingly referred Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum)earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name Desired Mountain offered 9th-century Endlicher Glossarycontrast some modern scholars have proposed Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon after Celtic god Lugus ('Light' cognate with Old Irish Lugh Modern Irish Lú) dúnon (hill-fort)The Roman-era Theatre Fourvière Hill. Parc de Miribel-Jonage (2200 hectares) The Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 was most emblematic event of French RevolutionFacing financial troubles King Louis XVI summoned Estates-General (gathering three Estates of realm) May 1789 propose solutions his government came impasse representatives of Third Estate formed into National Assembly signalling outbreak of French Revolution Fearing that king would suppress newly created National Assembly insurgents stormed Bastille 14 July 1789 date which would become France's National DayIn early August 1789 National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges of nobility such personal serfdom exclusive hunting rights Through Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights men Declaration affirms the natural imprescriptible rights of man liberty property security resistance oppression Freedom of speech press were declared arbitrary arrests outlawed called destruction of aristocratic privileges proclaimed freedom equal rights all men well access public office based talent rather than birthIn November 1789 Assembly decided nationalize sell all property of Roman Catholic Church which had been largest landowner country July 1790 Civil Constitution of Clergy reorganised French Catholic Church cancelling authority of Church levy taxes et cetera This fueled much discontent parts of France which would contribute civil war breaking out some years later While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among population his disastrous flight Varennes (June 1791) seemed justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation prospects of foreign invasion His credibility was so deeply undermined that abolition of monarchy establishment of republic became increasing possibilityIn August 1791 Emperor of Austria King of Prussia Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France intervene force of arms restore French absolute monarchy September 1791 National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI accept French Constitution of 1791 thus turning French absolute monarchy into constitutional monarchy newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791) enmity developed deepened between group later called 'Girondins' who favored war with Austria Prussia group later called 'Montagnards' or 'Jacobins' who opposed such war majority Assembly 1792 however saw war with Austria Prussia chance boost popularity of revolutionary government thought that France would win war against those gathered monarchies 20 April 1792 therefore they declared war Austria.[XIV], See also Taxation France In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are; Place Bellecour one of largest town squares Europe Historically economy of Marseille was dominated its role port of French Empire linking North African colonies of Algeria Morocco Tunisia with Metropolitan France Old Port was replaced main port trade Port de la Joliette during Second Empire now contains restaurants offices bars hotels functions mostly private marina majority of port docks which experienced decline 1970s after oil crisis have been recently redeveloped with funds from European Union Fishing remains important Marseille food economy of Marseille fed local catch daily fish market still held Quai des Belges of Old PortThe economy of Marseille its region still linked its commercial port first French port fifth European port cargo tonnage which lies north of Old Port eastern Fos-sur-Mer Some 45,000 jobs linked port activities represents 4 billion euros added value regional economy 100 million tons of freight pass annually through port 60% of which petroleum making number one France Mediterranean number three Europe However early 2000s growth container traffic was being stifled constant strikes social upheavalport among 20th firsts Europe container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU new infrastructures have already raised capacity 2M TEU Petroleum refining shipbuilding principal industries but chemicals soap glass sugar building materials plastics textiles olive oil processed foods also important products. Marseille connected with Rhône via canal thus has access extensive waterway network of France Petroleum shipped northward Paris basin pipeline city also serves France's leading centre of oil refiningCompanies services high technologies. Sculpture of Marianne common national personification of French RepublicAccording BBC poll 2010 based 29,977 responses 28 countries France globally seen positive influence world's affairs 49% have positive view of country's influence whereas 19% have negative viewNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has second best international reputation only behind Germanyglobal opinion poll BBC saw France ranked fourth most positively viewed nation world (behind Germany Canada United Kingdom) 2014According poll 2011 French were found have highest level of religious tolerance be country where highest proportion of population defines its identity primarily term of nationality not religionof 2011 75% of French had favourable view of United States making France one of most pro-American countries worldof 2017 favourable view of United States had dropped 46%January 2010 magazine International Living ranked France best country live in ahead of 193 other countries fifth year runningThe French Revolution continues permeate country's collective memory tricolour flag of France, anthem La Marseillaise motto Liberté égalité fraternité defined Title 1 of Constitution national symbols all emerged during cultural ferment of early revolution along with Marianne common national personification addition Bastille Day national holiday commemorates storming of Bastille 14 July 1789A common traditional symbol of French people Gallic rooster Its origins date back Antiquity since Latin word Gallus meant both rooster inhabitant of Gaul Then this figure gradually became most widely shared representation of French used French monarchs then Revolution under successive republican regimes representation of national identity used some stamps coinsCuisine, Other landmarks laid out east west along historical axis of Paris which runs from Louvre through Tuileries Garden Luxor Column Place de la Concorde Arc de Triomphe Grande Arche of La DéfenseSeveral other much-visited landmarks located suburbs of city Basilica of St Denis Seine-Saint-Denis birthplace of Gothic style of architecture royal necropolis of French kings queensParis region hosts three other UNESCO Heritage sites Palace of Versailles west, Palace of Fontainebleau south, medieval fairs site of Provins east Paris region Disneyland Paris Marne-la-Vallée 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of centre of Paris received 9.66 million visitors 2017Hotels. Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire.
Like Paris Marseille city of Lyon divided into number of municipal arrondissements each of which identified number has its own council town hall Five arrondissements were originally created 1852 when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse La Guillotière Vaise) were annexed Lyon Between 1867 1959 third arrondissement (which originally covered whole of Left Bank of Rhône) was split three times creating new arrondissement each case Then 1963 commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed Lyon's fifth arrondissement year later 1964 fifth was split create Lyon's 9th – and date final – arrondissement Within each arrondissement recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are, Since 2016 France mainly divided into 18 administrative regions 13 regions metropolitan France (including territorial collectivity of Corsica), five located overseasregions further subdivided into 101 departments, which numbered mainly alphabetically This number used postal codes was formerly used vehicle number plates Among 101 departments of France five (French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion) overseas regions (ROMs) that also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) enjoy exactly same status metropolitan departments integral part of European UnionThe 101 departments subdivided into 335 arrondissements which are turn subdivided into 2,054 cantons These cantons then divided into 36,658 communes which municipalities with elected municipal council Three communes—Paris Lyon Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissementsThe regions departments communes all known territorial collectivities meaning they possess local assemblies well executive Arrondissements cantons merely administrative divisions However this was not always case Until 1940 arrondissements were territorial collectivities with elected assembly but these were suspended Vichy regime definitely abolished Fourth Republic 1946Overseas territories collectivities. Republican marches were organised across France after January 2015 Île-de-France attacks perpetrated Islamic terrorists they largest public rallies French historySince 19th century France has received many immigrants These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed During 1970s France faced economic crisis allowed new immigrants (mostly from Maghreb) permanently settle France with their families acquire French citizenship resulted hundreds of thousands of Muslims (especially larger cities) living subsidised public housing suffering from very high unemployment rates Simultaneously France renounced assimilation of immigrants where they were expected adhere French traditional values cultural norms They were encouraged retain their distinctive cultures traditions required merely integrateSince 1995 Paris Métro RER bombings France has been sporadically targeted Islamist organisations notably Charlie Hebdo attack January 2015 which provoked largest public rallies French history gathering 4.4 million people, November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted 130 deaths deadliest attack French soil since World War II, deadliest European Union since Madrid train bombings 2004 2016 Nice attack which caused 87 deaths during Bastille Day celebrationsGeography, See also List of railway stations Paris, Le Penseur Auguste Rodin (1902) Musée Rodin ParisIn second part of 19th century France's influence over painting became even more important with development of new styles of painting such Impressionism Symbolism most famous impressionist painters of period were Camille Pissarro Édouard Manet Edgar Degas Claude Monet Auguste Renoirsecond generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Toulouse-Lautrec Georges Seurat were also avant-garde of artistic evolutions, well fauvist artists Henri Matisse André Derain Maurice de VlaminckAt beginning of 20th century Cubism was developed Georges Braque Spanish painter Pablo Picasso living Paris Other foreign artists also settled worked or near Paris such Vincent van Gogh Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani Wassily KandinskyMany museums France entirely or partly devoted sculptures painting works huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during 18th century displayed state-owned Musée du Louvre such Mona Lisa also known La Joconde While Louvre Palace has been long time museum Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated 1986 old railway station Gare d'Orsay major reorganisation of national art collections gather French paintings from second part of 19th century (mainly Impressionism Fauvism movements)Modern works presented Musée National d'Art Moderne which moved 1976 Centre Georges Pompidou These three state-owned museums welcome close 17 million people year Other national museums hosting paintings include Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors 2008) but there also many museums owned cities most visited being Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries 2008) which hosts contemporary works Outside Paris all large cities have Museum of Fine Arts with section dedicated European French painting Some of finest collections Lyon Lille Rouen Dijon Rennes GrenobleArchitecture. No religion (39.6%), Gaston Defferre served Mayor of Marseille from 1953 1986Jean-Claude Gaudin has been Mayor of Marseille since 1995Population, Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms.
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