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France especially Paris has some of world's largest renowned museums including Louvre which most visited art museum world (5.7 million) Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million) mostly devoted Impressionism Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million) dedicated contemporary art Disneyland Paris Europe's most popular theme park with 15 million combined visitors resort's Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park 2009French Riviera. Main article List of museums Paris Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty! Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different. Notre-Dame de Reims Roman Catholic cathedral where kings of France were crowned until 1825.[XV] CPE Lyon The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism. Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799). The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics Main article Art Paris. Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes According Article 2 of Constitution official language of France French, Romance language derived from Latin Since 1635 Académie française has been France's official authority French language although its recommendations carry no legal weight There also regional languages spoken France such Occitan Breton Catalan Flemish (Dutch dialect) Alsatian (German dialect) Basque others (see Languages of France) Italian was official language of Corsica until May 9 1859The French government does not regulate choice of language publications individuals but use of French required law commercial workplace communications addition mandating use of French territory of Republic French government tries promote French European Union globally through institutions such La Francophonie perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts safeguard position of French language France Besides French there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France eight spoken French metropolitan territory 69 French overseas territoriesFrom 17th mid-20th century French served pre-eminent international language of diplomacy international affairs well lingua franca among educated classes of Europedominant position of French language international affairs was overtaken English since emergence of US major powerFor most of time which French served international lingua franca was not native language of most Frenchmen report 1794 conducted Henri Grégoire found that of country's 25 million people only three million spoke French natively rest spoke one of country's many regional languages such Alsatian Breton or Occitan Through expansion of public education which French was sole language of instruction well other factors such increased urbanisation rise of mass communication French gradually came be adopted virtually entire population process not completed until 20th centuryAs result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between 17th 20th centuries French was introduced Americas Africa Polynesia South-East Asia Caribbean French second most studied foreign language world after English, lingua franca some regions notably Africa legacy of French living language outside Europe mixed nearly extinct some former French colonies (The Levant South Southeast Asia) while creoles pidgins based French have emerged French departments West Indies South Pacific (French Polynesia) other hand many former French colonies have adopted French official language total number of French speakers increasing especially AfricaIt estimated that between 300 million 500 million people worldwide can speak French either mother tongue or second languageAccording 2007 Adult Education survey part of project European Union carried France Insee based sample of 15,350 persons French was first mother tongue of 87.2% of total population or roughly 55.81 million people followed Arabic (3.6% 2.30 million) Portuguese (1.5% 0.96 million) Spanish (1.2% 0.77 million) Italian (1.0% 0.64 million) People who had other languages their mother tongue made up 5.2% of populationReligion.
Main article Sport Paris Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located Villeurbanne). The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses Musée du Vieux Marseille. Sculpture of Marianne common national personification of French RepublicAccording BBC poll 2010 based 29,977 responses 28 countries France globally seen positive influence world's affairs 49% have positive view of country's influence whereas 19% have negative viewNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has second best international reputation only behind Germanyglobal opinion poll BBC saw France ranked fourth most positively viewed nation world (behind Germany Canada United Kingdom) 2014According poll 2011 French were found have highest level of religious tolerance be country where highest proportion of population defines its identity primarily term of nationality not religionof 2011 75% of French had favourable view of United States making France one of most pro-American countries worldof 2017 favourable view of United States had dropped 46%January 2010 magazine International Living ranked France best country live in ahead of 193 other countries fifth year runningThe French Revolution continues permeate country's collective memory tricolour flag of France, anthem La Marseillaise motto Liberté égalité fraternité defined Title 1 of Constitution national symbols all emerged during cultural ferment of early revolution along with Marianne common national personification addition Bastille Day national holiday commemorates storming of Bastille 14 July 1789A common traditional symbol of French people Gallic rooster Its origins date back Antiquity since Latin word Gallus meant both rooster inhabitant of Gaul Then this figure gradually became most widely shared representation of French used French monarchs then Revolution under successive republican regimes representation of national identity used some stamps coinsCuisine, As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance, animated gif showing expansion of Franks across Europe. Agence France-Presse Headquarters Paris The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries, Maison Carrée temple Nemausus Corinthian columns portico In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles!
Institut supérieur européen de gestion group, Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with. Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière large 19th-century basilica top of Fourvière Hill. According 2012 French census 586,163 residents of City of Paris or 26.2 percent 2,782,834 residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) or 23.4 percent were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% 2007 census)26,700 of these City of Paris 210,159 Paris Region were people born Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom French West Indies) therefore not counted immigrants since they were legally French citizens birthA further 103,648 City of Paris 412,114 Paris Region were born foreign countries with French citizenship birth This concerns particular many Christians Jews from North Africa who moved France Paris after times of independence not counted immigrants due their being born French citizensThe remaining group people born foreign countries with no French citizenship birth those defined immigrants under French law According 2012 census 135,853 residents of city of Paris were immigrants from Europe 112,369 were immigrants from Maghreb 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 5,059 from Turkey 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey) 38,858 from Americas 1,365 from South Pacific Note that immigrants from Americas South Pacific Paris vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located these regions of worldIn Paris Region 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe 627,078 were immigrants from Maghreb 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 69,338 from Turkey 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey) 113,363 from Americas 2,261 from South Pacific These last two groups of immigrants again vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located Americas South PacificIn 2012 there were 8,810 British citizens 10,019 US citizens living City of Paris (Ville de Paris) 20,466 British citizens 16,408 US citizens living entire Paris Region (Île-de-France)Religion. Paris was its artistic prime 19th century early 20th century when had colony of artists established city art schools associated with some of finest painters of times Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Paul Gauguin Pierre-Auguste Renoir others French Revolution political social change France had profound influence art capital Paris was central development of Romanticism art with painters such Gericault Impressionism Art Nouveau Symbolism Fauvism Cubism Art Deco movements all evolved Paris late 19th century many artists French provinces worldwide flocked Paris exhibit their works numerous salons expositions make name themselves Artists such Pablo Picasso Henri Matisse Vincent van Gogh Paul Cézanne Jean Metzinger Albert Gleizes Henri Rousseau Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani many others became associated with Paris Picasso living Le Bateau-Lavoir Montmartre painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 1907 Montmartre Montparnasse became centres artistic productionThe most prestigious names of French foreign sculptors who made their reputation Paris modern era Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty - Liberty Enlightening World) Auguste Rodin Camille Claudel Antoine Bourdelle Paul Landowski (statue of Christ Redeemer Rio de Janeiro) Aristide Maillol Golden Age of School of Paris ended between two world warsPhotography, Main article List of museums Paris, The Louvre City Hall towering over Place des Terreaux. Main article Tourism France Main article Cinema of France. No religion (39.6%) Outside central Marseille! European map of Eurozone monetary union, Unemployment economy fell from 20% 1995 14% 2004 However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than national average some parts of Marseille youth unemployment reported be high 40%Administration, ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes) Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I.
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