The Old Port or Vieux-Port main harbour marina of city guarded two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas Fort Saint-Jean) one of main places eat city Dozens of cafés line waterfront Quai des Belges end of harbour site of daily fish market Much of northern quayside area was rebuilt architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction Nazis 1943The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) baroque building dating from 17th centuryThe Centre Bourse adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome Rue Paradis) main shopping area central MarseilleThe Porte d'Aix triumphal arch commemorating French victories Spanish ExpeditionThe Hôtel-Dieu former hospital Le Panier transformed into InterContinental hotel 2013La Vieille Charité Le Panier architecturally significant building designed Puget brothers central baroque chapel situated courtyard lined with arcaded galleries Originally built alms house now home archeological museum gallery of African Asian art well bookshops café also houses Marseille International Poetry CentreThe Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major founded 4th century enlarged 11th century completely rebuilt second half of 19th century architects Léon Vaudoyer Henri-Jacques Espérandieu present day cathedral gigantic edifice Romano-Byzantine style romanesque transept choir altar survive from older medieval cathedral spared from complete destruction only result of public protests timeThe 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine quayside near CathedralThe Abbey of Saint-Victor one of oldest places of Christian worship Europe Its 5th-century crypt catacombs occupy site of Hellenic burial ground later used Christian martyrs venerated ever since Continuing medieval tradition, every year Candlemas Black Madonna from crypt carried procession along Rue Sainte blessing from archbishop followed mass distribution of navettes green votive candlesMuseums. Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation. Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799). The Louvre Dining room of Vagenende See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000). Starting 1903 Tour de France oldest most prestigious of Grands Tours world's most famous cycling racePopular sports played France include football judo tennis, rugby pétanque France has hosted events such 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups, 2007 Rugby World Cup, will host 2023 Rugby World Cup country also hosted 1960 European Nations' Cup UEFA Euro 1984 UEFA Euro 2016 Stade de France Saint-Denis France's largest stadium was venue 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup finals Since 1903 France hosts annual Tour de France most famous road bicycle race world France famous its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race Several major tennis tournaments take place France including Paris Masters French Open one of four Grand Slam tournaments French martial arts include Savate FencingPierre de Coubertin father of modern Olympic Games! France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. Main article Administration of Paris, Bellecour Ecoles D'ArtsPrimary secondary schools, A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (ΜΑΣΣΑ[ΛΙΑ]) dated 375–200 BC during Hellenistic period of Marseille bearing head of Greek goddess Artemis obverse lion reverse.
Transport See also List of films set Paris Hollywood-style Marseille sign Main article French architecture. Sailing major sport Marseille wind conditions allow regattas warm waters of Mediterranean. Throughout most seasons of year can be windy while sea remains smooth enough allow sailing Marseille has been host of 8 (2010) Match Race France events which part of World Match Racing Tour event draws world's best sailing teams Marseille identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) raced two time water dogfight which tests sailors skippers limits of their physical abilities Points accrued count towards World Match Racing Tour place final event with overall winner taking title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion Match racing ideal sport spectators Marseille racing close proximity shore provides excellent views city was also considered possible venue 2007 America's CupMarseille also place other water sports such windsurfing powerboating Marseille has three golf courses city has dozens of gyms several public swimming pools Running also popular many of Marseille's parks such Le Pharo Le Jardin Pierre Puget annual footrace held between city neighbouring Cassis Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale. The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics Ombrosa. Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory, Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3), The most expensive residential streets Paris 2018 average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement) 22,372 Euros per square meter Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement) (20,373 Euros) Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) 18,839 Euros per square meterThe total number of residences city of Paris 2011 was 1,356,074 up from former high of 1,334,815 2006 Among these 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent 2006)Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 before 20 percent were built between 1949 1974 only 18 percent of buildings remaining were built after that dateTwo-thirds of city's 1.3 million residences studio two-room apartments Paris averages 1.9 people per residence number that has remained constant since 1980s but much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent entire Île-de-France) major part of city's population rent-paying oneSocial or public housing represented 19.9 percent of city's total residences 2017 Its distribution varies widely throughout city from 2.6 percent of housing wealthy 7th arrondissement 24 percent 20th arrondissement 26 percent 14th arrondissement 39.9 percent 19th arrondissement poorer southwest northern edges of cityOn night of February 15–16 2018 during spell of cold weather City of Paris conducted citywide count of homeless persons carried out two thousand volunteers They found 2,952 persons sleeping streets another 672 temporary shelters total of 3,600Paris its suburbs. Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3). Main articles History of Lyon Timeline of Lyon, Employment economic sector Paris area (petite couronne) with population unemployment figures (2012) CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie). Marseille television As of 2009 World Trade Organization (WTO) reported France was world's sixth largest exporter fourth largest importer of manufactured goodsof 2016 World Factbook ranked France seventh largest exporter2008 France was third largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries $118 billion ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers banks located there) United States ($316 billion) but above United Kingdom ($96.9 billion) Germany ($25 billion) or Japan ($24 billion) same year French companies invested $220 billion outside France ranking France second largest outward direct investor OECD behind United States ($311 billion) ahead of UK ($111 billion) Japan ($128 billion) Germany ($157 billion)Financial services banking insurance sector important part of economy Paris stock exchange (French La Bourse de Paris) old institution created Louis XV 17242000 stock exchanges of Paris Amsterdam Bruxelles merged into Euronext2007 Euronext merged with New York stock exchange form NYSE Euronext world's largest stock exchange Euronext Paris French branch of NYSE Euronext group Europe's 2nd largest stock exchange market behind London Stock ExchangeFrance member of Eurozone (around 330 million consumers) which part of European Single Market (more than 500 million consumers) Several domestic commercial policies determined agreements among European Union (EU) members EU legislation France introduced common European currency Euro 2002French companies have maintained key positions insurance banking industries AXA world's largest insurance company leading French banks BNP Paribas Crédit Agricole ranking world's first sixth largest banks 2010 (by assets) while Société Générale group was ranked world's eighth largest 2009Agriculture.
Main articles History of Lyon Timeline of Lyon, Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia; Paris was its artistic prime 19th century early 20th century when had colony of artists established city art schools associated with some of finest painters of times Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Paul Gauguin Pierre-Auguste Renoir others French Revolution political social change France had profound influence art capital Paris was central development of Romanticism art with painters such Gericault Impressionism Art Nouveau Symbolism Fauvism Cubism Art Deco movements all evolved Paris late 19th century many artists French provinces worldwide flocked Paris exhibit their works numerous salons expositions make name themselves Artists such Pablo Picasso Henri Matisse Vincent van Gogh Paul Cézanne Jean Metzinger Albert Gleizes Henri Rousseau Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani many others became associated with Paris Picasso living Le Bateau-Lavoir Montmartre painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 1907 Montmartre Montparnasse became centres artistic productionThe most prestigious names of French foreign sculptors who made their reputation Paris modern era Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty - Liberty Enlightening World) Auguste Rodin Camille Claudel Antoine Bourdelle Paul Landowski (statue of Christ Redeemer Rio de Janeiro) Aristide Maillol Golden Age of School of Paris ended between two world warsPhotography; With more than 10 millions tourists year French Riviera (French Côte d'Azur) Southeast France second leading tourist destination country after Paris regionbenefits from 300 days of sunshine per year 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline beaches 18 golf courses 14 ski resorts 3,000 restaurants31 Each year Côte d'Azur hosts 50% of world's superyacht fleet66, Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present). See also Arrondissements of Paris List of mayors of Paris. Climate data Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) 43°26'18.4N 5°12'51.9E (1981–2010 averages record highs lows 1921–present), Catholic University of Lyon The Government of France has run budget deficit each year since early 1970s of 2016 French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros equivalent of 96.4% of French GDPlate 2012 credit rating agencies warned that growing French Government debt levels risked France's AAA credit rating raising possibility of future downgrade subsequent higher borrowing costs French authoritiesEconomy!
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