Prehistory (before 6th century BC) The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums. Val de LoirePays de la Loire, Musée des Automates museum of automated puppets Vieux Lyon open since 1991Parks gardens, Paris its suburbs seen from Spot Satellite.
Caves Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil part of UNESCO Prehistoric Sites Decorated Caves of Vézère ValleyGeological formations near Roussillon Vaucluse dating back Post-classical historyMetropolitan France has wide variety of topographical sets natural landscapes Large parts of current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like Hercynian uplift Paleozoic Era during which Armorican Massif Massif Central Morvan Vosges Ardennes ranges island of Corsica were formed These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such Aquitaine basin southwest Paris basin north latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such silt beds of Beauce Brie Various routes of natural passage such Rhône valley allow easy communications Alpine Pyrenean Jura mountains much younger have less eroded forms 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level Mont Blanc located Alps French Italian border highest point Western EuropeAlthough 60% of municipalities classified having seismic risks these risks remain moderate coastlines offer contrasting landscapes mountain ranges along French Riviera coastal cliffs such Côte d'Albâtre wide sandy plains Languedoc Corsica lies off Mediterranean coast France has extensive river system consisting of four major rivers Seine Loire Garonne Rhône their tributaries whose combined catchment includes over 62% of metropolitan territory Rhône divides Massif Central from Alps flows into Mediterranean Sea Camargue Other water courses drain towards Meuse Rhine along north-eastern borders France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×106 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction of which 97% overseasClimate, French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789). Main articles Kingdom of France Capetian dynasty Valois dynasty Bourbon dynasty École Normale Supérieure de Lyon IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon).
Opéra Nouvel (1831) renovated 1993 Jean Nouvel, Median income Paris its nearest departments, President Édouard Philippe The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics; Motorways around Marseille Palais du Pharo, Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries. See also List of twin towns sister cities of Paris, Église Saint-Just (16th 18th century) Classical church, Victor Hugo Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action. 8th arrondissement Monplaisir (south) Bachut États-Unis Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent Grange Blanche (south) Laënnec Mermoz Monplaisir-la-Plaine, The earliest French literature dates from Middle Ages when what now known modern France did not have single uniform language There were several languages dialects writers used their own spelling grammar Some authors of French mediaeval texts unknown such Tristan Iseult Lancelot-Grail Other authors known example Chrétien de Troyes Duke William IX of Aquitaine who wrote OccitanMuch medieval French poetry literature were inspired legends of Matter of France such Song of Roland various chansons de geste Roman de Renart written 1175 Perrout de Saint Cloude tells story of mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') another example of early French writing important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais whose novel Gargantua Pantagruel has remained famous appreciated until now Michel de Montaigne was other major figure of French literature during that century His most famous work Essais created literary genre of essay French poetry during that century was embodied Pierre de Ronsard Joachim du Bellay Both writers founded La Pléiade literary movementDuring 17th century Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves novel that considered be one of very first psychological novels of all times Jean de La Fontaine one of most famous fabulists of that time he wrote hundreds of fables some being far more famous than others such Ant Grasshopper Generations of French pupils had learn his fables that were seen helping teaching wisdom common sense young people Some of his verses have entered popular language become proverbs such À l'œuvre connaît l'artisan.[A workman known his chips]see description. Main article Religion France Undecided (0.4%), Religion France (2016) France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force.
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